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-. 排水毒性评价中工具和概念发展的国际分析,寻找动物替代方法,减少脊椎动物的使用[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018, 13(5):
排水毒性评价中工具和概念发展的国际分析,寻找动物替代方法,减少脊椎动物的使用
An International Perspective on the Tools and Concepts for Effluent Toxicity Assessments in the Context of Animal Alternatives: Reduction in Vertebrate Use
  
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中文摘要:
      从20世纪40年代开始,排水毒性测试已用于评价排水的潜在生态影响,并据此找到必要的处理方法以保护环境。毒性测试、分析工具和生物监测的系统组合方案逐步发展起来。因为排水毒性测试中所用的脊椎动物数量远大于单一化合物毒性测试的,所以需要开发一种方案以减少脊椎动物(例如鱼类)的使用。发展中国家开始将脊椎动物用于毒性实验以评价排水水质,这样使得新的综合方案的开发更为重要。本文完成了几项任务:1)评价国际上排水毒性测试的研究现状;2)考察目前管理部门、工业界、私人实验室和学术界的实践现状;3)探寻脊椎动物(鱼类)的替代方法包括改进的/新开发的方法和手段。单一手段往往很难满足上述要求,因为需要同时考虑监管需求、有效基准和替代方法的广泛接受度。应用证据权重法的一整套方案可以拥有足够的灵活性,得以满足环境、监管机构、监管团体的多方面要求。这个“工具箱(toolbox)”式的解决方案可以减少对活体(in vivo)鱼类测试的依赖。本文简要综述了污水监管和排水毒性测试方法。我们讨论和描述了正在开发中的替代方法,以及若要将其应用于监管,尚需克服的一些局限和障碍,这些方案将来都可以应用于国家和地区的环境管理。 精选自Teresa J. Norberg‐King, Michelle R. Embry, Scott E. Belanger, Thomas Braunbeck, Joshua D. Butler, Phil B. Dorn, Brianna Farr, Patrick D. Guiney, Sarah A. Hughes, Marlo Jeffries, Romain Journel, Marc Lèonard, Mark McMaster, James T. Oris, Kathy Ryder, Helmut Segner, Thomas Senac, Glen Van Der Kraak, Graham Whale, Peter Wilson. An International Perspective on the Tools and Concepts for Effluent Toxicity Assessments in the Context of Animal Alternatives: Reduction in Vertebrate Use. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry,2018,37:2745-2757.
详情请见 https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4259
  
AuthorAffiliation
Teresa J. Norberg‐King, Michelle R. Embry, Scott E. Belanger, Thomas Braunbeck, Joshua D. Butler, Phil B. Dorn, Brianna Farr, Patrick D. Guiney, Sarah A. Hughes, Marlo Jeffries, Romain Journel, Marc Lèonard, Mark McMaster, James T. Oris, Kathy Ryder, Helmut Segner, Thomas Senac, Glen Van Der Kraak, Graham Whale, Peter Wilson
英文摘要:
      Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been used to assess potential ecological impacts of effluents and help determine necessary treatment options for environmental protection prior to release. Strategic combinations of toxicity tests, analytical tools, and biological monitoring have been developed. Because the numbers of vertebrates utilized in effluent testing is thought to be much greater than that used for individual chemical testing, there is a new need to develop strategies to reduce the numbers of vertebrates (i.e., fish) utilized. This need will become more critical as developing nations begin to use vertebrates in toxicity tests to assess effluent quality. A workshop was held to 1) assess the state of science in effluent toxicity testing globally; 2) determine current practices of regulators, industry, private laboratories, and academia; and 3) explore alternatives to vertebrate (fish) testing options and the inclusion of modified/new methods and approaches in the regulatory environment. No single approach was identified, due to a range of factors including regulatory concerns, validity criteria, and wider acceptability of alternatives. However, a suite of strategies in a weight-of-evidence approach would provide the flexibility to meet the needs of the environment, regulators, and the regulated community, and this “toolbox” approach would also support reduced reliance on in vivo fish tests. This paper provides a brief overview of wastewater regulation and effluent testing approaches. Alternative methodologies under development and some of the limitations and barriers to regulatory of approaches that can be selected to suit individual country and regional requirements are described and discussed.
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