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-. 农药引起的两栖动物脑部的变化:亚致死浓度的毒死蜱如何直接影响神经发育[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018, 13(5):
农药引起的两栖动物脑部的变化:亚致死浓度的毒死蜱如何直接影响神经发育
Insecticide-induced changes in amphibian brains: How sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos directly affect neurodevelopment
  
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中文摘要:
      农药虽然可以控制病虫害,但其广泛使用造成自然环境的污染,致使非靶标生物暴露于农药污染环境中。即使低浓度农药暴露也会直接或间接影响水生生物群落。前期人工池塘(中宇宙)研究结果表明痕量毒死蜱(chlorpyrifos, CPF)可改变蝌蚪体态和神经发育。造成这个结果的原因可能为:1)CPF暴露的直接影响;2)农药造成了浮游动物数量下降扰乱食物网。为了明确原因,我们在CPF耐受浮游动物存在的情况下,考察了CPF对两栖动物发育的影响,这种浮游动物是不同营养级别水生生物群落的重要组成部分。豹蛙(Lithobates pipiens)蝌蚪饲养在中宇宙的环境,经过变态期,环境中含有0或1 μg/L CPF,或CPF敏感型浮游动物Daphnia pulex。CPF发育期暴露致使蝌蚪蜕变时视顶盖、延髓、间脑相对更宽,而这一结果与中宇宙中浮游动物种群无关。因此,CPF直接影响大脑发育,与不同营养级别的群落的无关。至于身体形态方面,CPF对无CPF敏感型浮游动物的中宇宙中饲养的蝌蚪蜕变形态没有影响,但在没有CPF污染时,蝌蚪身体形态对浮游动物种群数量很敏感。研究表明,生态水平的低剂量有机磷农药暴露可直接影响脊椎动物的神经发育。 精选自Sara J. McClelland, Randall J. Bendis, Rick A. Relyea, Sarah K. Woodley. Insecticide-induced changes in amphibian brains: How sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos directly affect neurodevelopment. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry,2018,37:2692–2698.
详情请见 https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.4240
  
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Sara J. McClelland, Randall J. Bendis, Rick A. Relyea, Sarah K. Woodley
英文摘要:
      Widespread use of pesticides often contaminates natural habitats, exposing non-target organisms to pesticides that were designed to control pest populations. Even low levels of pesticides can affect aquatic communities both directly and indirectly. Previous work showed trace amounts of the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) altered tadpole morphology and neurodevelopment in artificial ponds (mesocosms). To determine whether effects resulted from direct CPF exposure or from disruption of the food web due to a pesticide-induced decline in zooplankton, we examined the impacts of CPF on amphibian development in the presence of CPF-resistant zooplankton, a key component of the aquatic trophic community. Northern Leopard Frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles were reared through metamorphosis in mesocosms containing either 0 or 1μg/L CPF and either CPF-resistant or CPF-sensitive Daphnia pulex zooplankton. Developmental exposure to CPF resulted in metamorphs with a relatively wider optic tectum, medulla, and diencephalon compared to controls, and this result was found regardless of the zooplankton population within the mesocosm. Thus, CPF directly impacted brain development, independent from the effects on the trophic community. With respect to body shape, CPF had no effect on body shape of metamorphs reared in mesocosms with CPF-sensitive zooplankton, but body shape was sensitive to zooplankton population in the absence of CPF. To conclude, low, ecologically relevant doses of organophosphorous pesticides can directly impact neurodevelopment in a vertebrate model.
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