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李岗1,吴声敢1,2,3,4,蔡磊明1,2,3,4,*. 彗星实验技术及其应用[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018, 13(6): 79-96
彗星实验技术及其应用
The Comet Assay and Its Applications
投稿时间:2017-11-01  修订日期:2017-12-07
DOI:
中文关键词:  彗星实验  单细胞凝胶电泳  DNA损伤  遗传毒性
英文关键词:comet assay  single cell gel electrophoresis  DNA damage  genotoxicity
基金项目:浙江省基础公益研究计划项目(LGN18B070003);国家自然科学基金项目(31572028);浙江省农科院自主专项(2010DS700124-ZZ1611);
作者单位
李岗1,吴声敢1,2,3,4,蔡磊明1,2,3,4,* 1. 浙江省农业科学院 农产品质量标准研究所,杭州 310021 2. 浙江省农业科学院 农业部农药检测重点实验室,杭州 310021 3. 浙江省农业科学院 浙江省农药残留检测与控制研究重点实验室,杭州 310021 4. 浙江省农业科学院 浙江省植物有害生物防控省部共建国家重点实验室培育基地,杭州 310021 
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中文摘要:
      彗星实验是瑞典科学家Ostling和Johanson于1984年发明的检测毒物DNA损伤效应的方法。它经历了从最初的微电泳技术、中性彗星实验、碱性彗星实验、酶切彗星实验和双向垂直彗尾彗星实验等不断完善的发展过程。在毒理学、遗传学和环境生态科学等领域有着重要的应用,是经济合作与发展组织(OECD)和欧洲食品安全局等国际组织推荐的测定遗传毒性的方法之一。彗星实验的关键点包括单细胞悬液的制备、细胞裂解液的成分与比例,低熔点琼脂糖凝胶的浓度,电泳条件等。在典型应用领域,如蚯蚓、鱼、两栖动物、鼠和人的彗星实验很难找到标准实验方案。成功的彗星实验还需关注,实验设计时必须包括阳性对照,结果表述时必须有图为证,实验方案可能因物种或细胞而异。
  
AuthorAffiliation
Li Gang1, Wu Shenggan1,2,3,4, Cai Leiming1,2,3,4,*1. Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-Products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 31002, China 2. Agricultural Ministry Key Laboratory for Pesticide Residue Detection, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 31002, China 3. Key Laboratory for Zhejiang Pesticide Residue Detection and Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 31002, China 4. State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 31002, China
英文摘要:
      In 1984, the Sweden scientists, O. Ostling and K.J. Johanson, devised the “comet assay” to identify substances that cause DNA damage. Since then, it has experienced refinements that include several improvements such as microelectrophoresis, the neutral comet assay, the alkaline comet assay, the enzyme-modified comet assay, and the two-dimensional perpendicular tail comet assay. This general method is applicable to wide fields of interests including toxicology, genetics, environmental sciences & ecology, and others. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the European Food Safety Authority recommend comet assay as an integral part of their genotoxicity testing strategy. The critical procedures in the comet assay involve the preparation of a single-cell suspension, modifications to the lysis buffer, the percentage of low melting point agarose, electrophoresis conditions, etc. It is difficult to standardize protocols for earthworm, piscine, amphibians, murine, and human subjects. Successful comet assay must also include key points such as inclusions of positive controls in experimental design, good comet image as supporting evidence, and the development of special protocols depending on species and cell types.
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