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杜金秋1,2,#,王震1,林武辉3,关道明1,2,姚子伟1,*. 放射性核素水环境质量标准研究进展[J]. 生态毒理学报, 2018, 13(5): 27-36
放射性核素水环境质量标准研究进展
Research Progress of the Water Quality Standards on Radionuclides
投稿时间:2017-05-04  修订日期:2018-03-20
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897.20170504002
中文关键词:  放射性核素  水环境质量标准  风险评价  辐射剂量
英文关键词:radionuclides  water quality standards  risk assessment  radiation dose
基金项目:华东师范大学河口海岸国家重点实验室开放课题(SKLEC-KF201712);国家海洋局海洋沉积与环境地质重点实验室开放基金资助项目(MASEG201709);国家海洋局海洋生态环境科学与工程重点实验室开放基金资助项目(MESE-2017-03)
作者单位
杜金秋1,2,#,王震1,林武辉3,关道明1,2,姚子伟1,* 1. 国家海洋环境监测中心大连 116023 2. 中国海洋大学青岛 266100 3. 广西大学南宁 530004 
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中文摘要:
      地球环境中广泛存在的放射性核素对人类和其他物种产生辐射安全风险,成为水环境质量的重要指标之一。随着人类生活水平和环境保护意识的提升,以及核与辐射安全复杂的国际形势,放射性核素水环境质量标准的关注度越来越高。饮用水水质标准中的放射性核素限值基于个人辐射剂量标准,评估方法已经建立,并在世界卫生组织、美国、加拿大和日本等国际组织和国家的饮用水水质标准中得到广泛应用。水环境质量标准中的放射性核素限值基于辐射环境、参考生物、个体单位时间内的辐射剂量限值,对此各国际组织和国家相继开展了放射性核素的生态风险评价研究,并逐步制定相关标准。与国际水平相比,我国水环境质量标准存在放射性核素指标数量少、修订频率滞后、科学适用性有待提升等问题。在我国核能发展与生态文明建设的新形势下,加强放射性核素的健康风险和生态风险评价研究,建立健全水环境质量标准中放射性核素指标体系成为我国水环境研究的紧迫任务。
  
AuthorAffiliation
Du Jinqiu1,2,#, Wang Zhen1, Lin Wuhui3, Guan Daoming1,2, Yao Ziwei1,*1. National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, Dalian 116023, China 2. Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China 3. Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China
英文摘要:
      Widespread radionuclides in environment produce radiation risk to human and other living beings, which have been considered as one of key indicators of water quality. With the increasing risks of radionuclides to humans and ecological environments, and the severe situations of international nuclear and radiation safety, radionuclide index in water quality standards is attracting more and more attention. The calculation methods of radionuclides limits in drinking water quality standards have been developed based on individual radiation dose rate, and applied widely by international organizations, as well as the United States, Canada and other countries. According to the radiation exposure, reference organisms and biological radiation dose, the radionuclides standards of water quality have been established gradually by several organizations and countries. Research progresses of water quality standards on radionuclides in China fall behind the other developed countries, and there exist many problems, such as the lack of radionuclide indicator and the lag in revision frequency and applicability. Under the new situation of nuclear energy development and ecological civilization construction in China, the urgent tasks are to enhance the health risk and ecological risk assessment of radionuclides, and to improve and perfect the radionuclide index system of water quality.
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