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2015 Volume 10 Issue 3
 

  
Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, February 2015, Volume 10, Number 3 

       

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology (ISSN: 1673-5897) focuses on fundamental research on the mechanisms of toxicity of the environmental pollutants at the community, species, tissue, cellular, subcellular and molecular levels, including aspects of uptake, metabolism and excretion of toxicants.

We welcome the interdisciplinary studies of environmental chemistry and toxicology describing environmental fate and biological fate of pollutants, novel analytical technologies, techniques, and methods such as biomarkers, biosensors, bioanalytical systems, QSARs and QSPRs.

The applied outcome of complex ecotoxicological research such as

developing the science-based Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC), standard toxicity tests, techniques, and methods for ecotoxicological evaluation of the environment is also within the scope of Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology.

The journal includes not only original research papers but technical notes and review articles, both invited and submitted.

Although most of our papers are written in Chinese, papers written in English are highly welcome.

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology has been indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews since 2007.

Reviews
Applications and Perspectives of Quantum Dots in Neurotoxicology  PDF download
Wu Tianshu, Tang Meng
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140517001
Abstract: With the rapid development of nanotechnology, quantum dots (QDs), as a new type of nano-fluorescence probes, have been widely used in biology and toxicology due to their unique photoelectric properties. Moreover, QDs have introduced a technological innovation in the field of neurotoxicology, which as an important branch of toxicology. The primary focus of this review is the application of QDs in neurotoxicological studies as a novel single molecular technology and an excellent fluorescent probe. The routes of QDs entering into the nervous system and potential factors that could impact QDs’ applications were also briefly introduced here in order to guide further related researches on the biosafety and better applications of QDs.
Citation:Wu Tianshu, Tang Meng Applications and Perspectives of Quantum Dots in Neurotoxicology [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 1-10
The Antibiotic in Environment and Its Ecotoxicity: A Review   PDF download
Xu Yonggang, Yu Wantai*, Ma Qiang, Zhou Hua, Jiang Chunming
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140811001
Abstract: In recent years, more and more antibiotic drugs were used in the medical treatment, livestock breeding and aquaculture. Since antibiotic drugs could not be completely absorbed by the body of humans and animals, their parent compounds or related metabolites would be returned back to the aquatic and soil environment via urine or faece, causing their residue in environment. Residual antibiotics drugs could lead to the potential environmental risks, of which the most serious one is to induce and spread antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), subsequently producing threat to human health. This paper mainly described the source, fate and occurrence of antibiotic drugs in the environment, and then we reviewed the ecotoxicity and ARGs caused by antibiotic. In addition, we also pointed out the problems existing in the present studies and prospected the future research work.
Citation: Xu Yonggang, Yu Wantai*, Ma Qiang, Zhou Hua, Jiang Chunming The Antibiotic in Environment and Its Ecotoxicity: A Review [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 11-27
Review of the Ecotoxicity of Nanoscale Zero-valent Iron   PDF download
Ge Xingbin1, Wang Zhenhong1, Guo Chuqi2, Sun Xin1, Li Tielong1,*,Wang Wei
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140227004
Abstract: As an efficient environmental remediation material, nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) has been broadly applied in the remediation of contaminated?groundwater and soil for its huge specific surface area, high surface reactivity and strong reducibility. However, the injection of large amount of iron nanoparticles into the contaminated sites should increase its exposure possibility to ecosystem, and thus pose potential risk to environment and ecosystem, since it can pass through the cell membrane and the protective screens of organisms resulting from its extremely small particle size. Considering both the broad potential application of nZVI in environmental remediation and its possible toxicity, it is of great importance to investigate the environmental risk of nZVI, and more attention has been paid to the biological safety of nZVI. This paper overviews the research progress on the toxicity effect of iron nanoparticle in these years. NZVI could lead to negative effects on viruses, bacteria, microbial communities, as well as animals and plants. Although the toxicity mechanisms of nZVI remain unclear, a general viewpoint suggests that the toxicity effect should be resulted from the release of iron ions and the following oxidative damage. The effect of environmental factors and surface modification on the toxicity of nZVI is also discussed. In addition, prospect of the development of nZVI is presented to provide some reference for the research on the nZVI in the future.
Citation: Ge Xingbin1, Wang Zhenhong1, Guo Chuqi2, Sun Xin1, Li Tielong1,*,Wang Wei Review of the Ecotoxicity of Nanoscale Zero-valent Iron [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 28-37
Review of Species Sensitivity Distributions for Heavy Metals and Organic Contaminants(PFOS)  PDF download
Tian Dayong*, Chang Chenchao, Wang Chengzhi, Ru Zongling, Song Haixiang, Hou Shaogang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150114001
Abstract: Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) is a statistical extrapolation method with a higher confidence level than that of the assessment factor method. It has been widely used in developing the environmental quality criteria and ecological risk assessments. This paper discusses the development of the SSD of heavy metals and organic contaminants in recent years, and elaborates the application of the SSD method in the field of ecological risk assessments of these chemicals in different environmental media, including water, soil and sediments. In addition, the influences on the uncertainty of the SSD models, such as the selection of SSD models and data screening, were summarized. The application of SSD method in ecological risk assessment is also prospected.
Citation: Tian Dayong*, Chang Chenchao, Wang Chengzhi, Ru Zongling, Song Haixiang, Hou Shaogang Review of Species Sensitivity Distributions for Heavy Metals and Organic Contaminants(PFOS)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 38-49 
Review on the Toxic Mechanisms and Bioassay Approaches for Dioxin-like Compounds   PDF download
Huang Chao1, Chen Ning1,2, Yang Mingjia1,*, Feng Zhongfu3, Ma Mei1, Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140701001
Abstract: T The toxic dioxin-like compounds are typical representatives of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They have a variety of sources and are attracted widespread attention. In past years, some congeners of dioxins and furans were thought metabolically stable in biota, and their toxic effects were mainly mediated through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Recent research demonstrated that the toxic mechanisms of these AhR agonistic compounds should be more complicate then previously recognized. Based on recent research progress, this review article presents some new insights into the toxic modes of action (MoA) and metabolic pathways. Also, high-throughput bioassay approaches developed based on MoA were summarized for the sake of screening and risk assessment of dioxin-like compounds in environmental media.
Citation: Huang Chao1, Chen Ning1,2, Yang Mingjia1,*, Feng Zhongfu3, Ma Mei1, Wang Zijian Review on the Toxic Mechanisms and Bioassay Approaches for Dioxin-like Compounds[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 50-62
The Toxicologic Applications of the Comet Assay in the Aquatic and Soil Environment   PDF download
Bian Fangjie, Xing Meiyan*, Yang Jian, Sun Wen, Pan Sai
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141006001
Abstract: The comet assay is a rapid and cost-effective protocol of measuring deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages, highly suitable for almost all eukaryotic cells. Therefore, it is widely used in the field of genetic toxicity, radiation biology, tumor cytology, toxicity detection etc., particularly with wide applications in environment researches due to its high sensitivity and detection of joint toxicity. This paper mainly reviews the development of the comet assay methodology, its experimental principles and applications in the aquatic and soil environment. More importantly, the limited factors and future prospects for the applications of comet assay in this paper are documented to provide a theoretical guidance and reference for popularizing the comet assay.
Citation: Bian Fangjie, Xing Meiyan*, Yang Jian, Sun Wen, Pan Sai The Toxicologic Applications of the Comet Assay in the Aquatic and Soil Environment [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 63-70
Integrated Sediment Quality Assessment: A Case Study Based on Weight of Evidence Approach)  PDF download
Jiang Yuxia1,2, Liu Yousheng1 , Ying Guangguo1,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140726001
Abstract: Sediment is an important part of aquatic ecosystems, and its pollution can affect the health of the whole ecosystem. Therefore, it is essential to develop a proper sediment quality assessment method, which can facilitate pollution control, and provide a scientific basis for further remediation of contaminated aquatic environments. Various sediment quality assessment methods have been proposed in the past. Among those assessment methods, Weight of Evidence approach measures and integrates different lines of evidences, which can make up the drawbacks of those traditional simple evaluation methods and provide scientific and comprehensive evaluation of sediment quality. This paper introduced the three major lines of evidences including sediment chemistry, toxicity and benthic community, as well as weighting methods and relevant information integrating methods. A detailed procedure of sediment quality assessment was introduced here with Danshui River as an example by using technique for order preference by similarity (TOPSIS) to integrate data.
Citation: Jiang Yuxia1,2, Liu Yousheng1 , Ying Guangguo1,* Integrated Sediment Quality Assessment: A Case Study Based on Weight of Evidence Approach)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 71-82
Cloning of cat, gapdh and gst Genes of Gambusia affinis and Its Application in Ecotoxicology  PDF download
Feng Chenglian, Fu Weiqiang, Dyer Scott, Fan Ming, Wu Fengchang
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140413003
Abstract: According to the CSD sequences of cat, gapdh and gst genes in fish species published in Emsembl and GenBank, three pairs of primers were designed to find the cDNA sequences of cat, gapdh and gst in Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).The primers for SYBR Green I real-time quantitative PCR was employed based upon the design requirements of quantitative primer. A new method of SYBR Green I real-time quantitative PCR for determination of cat, gapdh and gst genes in G. affinis was successfully established. The results showed that a good linear relationship existed in the range from 104 to 108 copies•μL-1 (R=0.999~1.000) and the melt curve exhibited good specificity of amplification products. The co-efficiencies of variation for both intra- and inter-experimental reproducibility were less than 2%. Furthermore, in order to validate and assess the utilization and feasibility of the new method in ecotoxicology, diclofenac, a typical pharmaceutical detected frequently in water, was employed to investigate its effects on the expression of antioxidant genes of G. affinis. Results showed that the cat and gst mRNA expressions were very significantly induced (p<0.01) in 0.005 mg•L-1 when female individuals were exposed to diclofenac sodium salt (0.005~5 mg•L-1) for 24 h, but decreased very significantly (p<0.01) with the increasing concentrations. It indicates that this new method is feasible, accurate and highly sensitive, and may provide a methodological basis for the utilization of Mosquitofish as a sentinel in molecular eco-toxicological assessment of environmental pollution.
Citation: Ou Ruikang, Wu Xiaoyan, Ku Peijia, Wang Lan, Su Tian, Liang Ximei, Nie Xiangping Cloning of cat, gapdh and gst Genes of Gambusia affinis and Its Application in Ecotoxicology )[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 83-92
Application of tissue residue approach in aquatic life criteria  PDF download
Wan Li1,2, Song Shizhen1, Fan Bolin1, Yang Wenxiang, Liu Chunxia1, Tang Xiaoqiao1, Sun Fanzhong1, Liu Yao
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140221001
Abstract: To investigate the general effect of pyraflufen-ethyl on rat growth, to discover potential target organs under chronic toxic challenge and determine NOAEL. SPF level SD rats, body weight between 40 to 50 grams, were randomly divided into control, low, middle and high dose groups, 160 rats/group, half male and half female. The rats were fed with forage containing different concentrations of pyraflufen-ethyl for 104 weeks, and had free access for drinking water. It was discovered that compared to the control group, there was significant decrease in body weight、weight gain and food efficiency at different stage in high dosage group (P<0.05); There was significant increase in blood BUN level, kidney weight rate, and decrease in ChE level in middle and high dose group (P<0.05). Histological examination showed degeneration of renal tubular epithelial cells, interstitial nephritis, chronic nephrosis in high dose group. These results demonstrated that middle to high dose of pyraflufen-ethyl inhibits weight gain and food efficiency in rat, and kidney is the target organ of chronic toxicity of the medicine.
Citation: Wan Li1,2, Song Shizhen1, Fan Bolin1, Yang Wenxiang, Liu Chunxia1, Tang Xiaoqiao1, Sun Fanzhong1, Liu Yao Application of tissue residue approach in aquatic life criteria [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 93-100
The Detrimental Effects of PM2.5 and the Protective Effects of Bioactive Compounds on CHO Cell  PDF download
Guo Chen1, Bi Tingting1, Liu Tao2, Zhao Xiaohong1,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140411001
Abstract: Fine particulate matters (PM2.5) cause health problems that have broughtgreat deal of concern. However, the mechanisms by which PM2.5 involved casus detrimental effects and the antagonism of bioactive compounds are still unclearcurrently unknown. The detrimental effects of PM2.5 collected in Beijing and the antagonism of Ferulic acid (FA), Chlorogenic acid (CA) and Orientin (ORI) on CHO cell were studied in this research and provided basic information for controlling the air pollution control and the subsequent respiratory diseases. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the cell viability, while cell apoptosis was detected with a Flow Cytometry. The gene expression of p-akt,akt, p65 and Bad were analyzeddetected with a Western Blot analysis. Intracellular ROS and SOD level were measured with the fluorescent probe DCFH-DA and WST-1, respectively. Results showed that 10~40 μg•mL-1 PM2.5 reduced cell viability in a dose dependent manner (R=-0.964,P<0.01). 15μg•mL-1 of PM2.5 dramatically remarkebly reduces the cell viability and as well as SOD level andas well asincreased the apoptotic rate and the intracellular ROS in CHO cells. It also up-regulated the gene expressions of p-akt/akt and p65 which indicated the activation of Akt and NF-κB signaling pathways. Pretreatments with 20 μmol•L-1 FA, 50 μmol•L-1 CA and 10 μmol•L-1 ORI maintained CHO cell viability and reduced PM2.5-induced apoptosisthrough the down-regulate reduction of the intracellular ROS , up-regulated SOD, and the down-regulated p-akt/akt, p65 and Bad. Taking together,PM2.5 causes damage on CHO cells through a variety of mechanisms, and the bioactive compounds can attenuated these effects by reducing oxidative stress and the over- up-regulatedinduction of Akt and NF-κB pathways.
Citation: Guo Chen1, Bi Tingting1, Liu Tao2, Zhao Xiaohong1,* The Detrimental Effects of PM2.5 and the Protective Effects of Bioactive Compounds on CHO Cell [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 101-111
The Effect of Exogenous NO on L - arginine Metabolism in Tomato Seedlings under Copper StressDifferent Trophic Levels PDF download
Research Articles
The Effect of Exogenous NO on L - arginine Metabolism in Tomato Seedlings under Copper Stress  PDF download
Wang Jian1,Yu Shixin,Dou Qiaohui, Wang Yijun, Cui Xiumin*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140425002
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO), as a bioactive molecule, widely involved in both biotic and abiotic stresses. Using solution culture, this paper reported responding mechanism of L-arginine, NO and Polyamine (PA) metabolism to exogenous NO in tomato seedlings under copper stress. This would hopefully provide scientific basis and technical support for the copper polluted land. These results suggested that adding exogenous SNP(Sodium Nitroprusside, Exogenous NO donor)could modulate the Arginine Decarboxylase (ADC), Ornithine Decarboxylase (ODC) and Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS) activity in tomato root and leaf under copper stress. In the root, exogenous SNP could increase the NOS activity, which induced L- arginine metabolism toward the direction of NO synthesis. In the leaf, exogenous SNP also enhanced the activity of ADC, ODC and NOS, meanwhile the synthesis of PA and NO was promoted. In addition, adding exogenous SNP could increase L-arginine content in tomato. As an synthetic precursor of PA and NO, arginine content rising would undoubtedly indirectly promote the PA and NO synthesis, thus improved the tomato resistance under copper stress.
Citation: Wang Jian1,Yu Shixin,Dou Qiaohui, Wang Yijun, Cui Xiumin* The Effect of Exogenous NO on L - arginine Metabolism in Tomato Seedlings under Copper Stress[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 112-122
Apoptosis Induced by Microcystin-LR in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell through Mitochondrial Pathway  PDF download
Xue Lijian1, Liu Xiaohui2, Yang Mingfeng1, Liu Ying1, Zhu Jing1, Qiao Dou1, Zhuang Donggang1, Cui Liuxin1, Zhang Huizhen1,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140514001
Abstract: To verify that mitochondrial Caspase-dependent pathway is involved in apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells induced by microcystin-LR (MC-LR), the logarithmic phase 16HBE cells were exposed to final concentrations of 0 (control group), 2.5, 5, 10 μg•mL-1 MC-LR, as well as 10 μg•mL-1 MC-LR and 50 μmol•L-1 Z-VAD-FMK (a broad-spectrum Caspase inhibitor) for 24 h or 48 h in vitro. The apoptosis rate, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), and the expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 were detected. Compared with the control group, the apoptosis rate, the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 increased significantly (P<0.05) in the treatment groups, and the ΔΨm decreased markedly (P<0.05) in the group treated with 10 μg•mL-1 MC-LR. The apoptosis rate, the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 in the group treated with both 10 μg•mL-1 MC-LR and 50 μmol•L-1 Z-VAD-FMK were lower than that in the group treated only with the 10 μg•mL-1 MC-LR. In addition, the apoptosis rates, the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 had a positive correlation with MC-LR concentrations and treatment time. These results suggested that MC-LR can induce 16HBE cells apoptosis through the mitochondrial Caspase-dependent pathway.
Citation: Xue Lijian1, Liu Xiaohui2, Yang Mingfeng1, Liu Ying1, Zhu Jing1, Qiao Dou1, Zhuang Donggang1, Cui Liuxin1, Zhang Huizhen1,* Apoptosis Induced by Microcystin-LR in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell through Mitochondrial Pathway [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 123-128
Collective Effect of BPA and Cd at the Subchronically Level on Reproductive Endocrine in Immaturate Female Mice   PDF download
He Qingfeng*, Li Hong, Li Yanjie, Zhang Pingping, Zhang Ailin, Wu Haiqing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140523002
Abstract: There are a lot of research about endocrine disrupting toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) or cadmium(Cd), but no studies have been carried out to shed light on combined toxicity of BPA and Cd. Forty Kunming female juvenile mice were randomly divided into 4 groups(normal control,BPA,Cd,and BPA plus Cd group). The mice were treated by gavage for 5 successive weeks. By the end of the experiment, the estrus cycle, antioxidant activity of ovary, serum sex hormone levels and estrogen receptor-alpha(ERα) expression in endometrium of mice were detected. Compared with control group,there are difference on time of estrus, body weight, uterus coefficient, serum E2 levels and endometrium ERαexpression in treated groups; Ovary T-SOD activity and MDA levels were no signifficantly different in BAP group and Cd group compared to the control group (P>0.05), however, ovary T-SOD activity and MDA levels in collective group were significantly different compared with those of the control group (P<0.05). Furthermore, endometrium ERα expression (36±11.7)% in collective group were lower than those of single-dose groups (P <0.05). Combined effect of BPA and Cd is more toxic than that of single dose exposure, impact on ERα expression and oxidative damage may be the mechanisms of the combined toxicological effect.
Citation: He Qingfeng*, Li Hong, Li Yanjie, Zhang Pingping, Zhang Ailin, Wu Haiqing Collective Effect of BPA and Cd at the Subchronically Level on Reproductive Endocrine in Immaturate Female Mice [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 129-134
Residues and Risk Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish and Shellfish Samples of Liaodong Peninsula  PDF download
Wang Wei1, Li Qingbo1*, Wang Chenxiang1, Zhang An1, Zhang Xiaolin2, Liu Xu3, Sun Mengxue1
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140603003
Abstract: Eleven different kinds of fish and two different kinds of shellfish samples were collected from the sea area of Liaodong Peninsula between January 2011 and May 2012. Contents of 22 organochlorine pesticides were analyzed in the edible parts of these samples. The impact of residues of HCHs and DDTs on human health was evaluated, subsequently. HCB, HCHs and DDTs were the primary contaminations in the observed samples and the residues of OCPs were from 57.12 to 546.15 μg•kg-1. Based on pollution index calculation, only Pseudosciaena polyactis Bleeker, Aristichthysnobilis, Macropodus opercularis and Bastard halibut were not contaminated by HCHs, Abbottina rivularis was slightly contaminated by HCHs, whereas the other samples were all highly contaminated by HCHs in Lvshun area. Besides, only Carassius cuvieri was not contaminated by DDTs and all the other samples were highly contaminated by DDTs. HCHs residue levels in Pseudosciaena crocea, Sphyraenus, Channidae and Aristichthysnobilis were significantly higher than extraneous maximum residue limits specified by the national standard,while DDTs residue level met the national standard. The carcinogenic risk index of α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT were ranged from 0.32×10-6 to 49.57×10-6, all lower than 10-4, indicating an acceptable carcinogenic risk level. The ERI exposure index of α-HCH, γ-HCH, β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were ranged from 0.01×10-3 to 153.28×10-3, which was lower than 1, indicating an acceptable exposure risk level. However, the integrated CRI values of above six pesticides in Channidae samples collected in April 2012 were higher than 10-4,indicating a potential carcinogenic risk. Therefore, it is suggested to be relatively safe that the consumption of Channidae is controlled below 50 g per day.
Citation: Wang Wei1, Li Qingbo1*, Wang Chenxiang1, Zhang An1, Zhang Xiaolin2, Liu Xu3, Sun Mengxue1 Residues and Risk Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish and Shellfish Samples of Liaodong Peninsula[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 135-143
Biomimetic Research on Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation of Sediment-associated Pyrethroids using Solid-Phase Microextraction  PDF download
Li Juanying?, Li Zhenhua, Cui Yu, Hu Qian, Chen Meina, Zheng Yixing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140621002
Abstract: Pyrethroidpesticides have been widely used in agricultural, sanitation, fishery and other fields,and they tend to accumulate in sediment due to their high hydrophobicity. Assessment of their bioavailabilityand bioaccumulation in sediment and the related risk they may pose on the environment is of high significance. The freely dissolved concentrations of lamba-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, permethrin and fenpropathrinin sediment pore water were measured in this study based on negligible depletion solid-phase microextractionusing the polymer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and the concentrations of pyrethroids in PDMS were compared with those in one kind of benthic animal (Venerupis philippinaram).The results showed that the freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) of pyrethroids in sediment pore-water could be accurately calculated,(range 23.3~255 ng?L-1). Bioconcentration factor (BCF) of four pyrethroid pesticides in Venerupis philippinaram ranged from 27.8~301 and can be classified at relatively low level according to the pesticide safety standards. Concentrations of pyrethroidsin PDMS and Venerupis philippinaram showed a significant correlation: lgCb,lip=11.64lgCPDMS-51.29 (R2=0.980, p=0.009). However the comparison between bio-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) and PDMS-sediment accumulation factor (PSAF) indicated that the application of biomimetic tool using PDMS to predict the bioaccumulation potential of sediment-associated pyrethroidrequires further information on the biotransformation of these compounds in Venerupis philippinaram.
Citation: Li Juanying?, Li Zhenhua, Cui Yu, Hu Qian, Chen Meina, Zheng Yixing Biomimetic Research on Bioavailability and Bioaccumulation of Sediment-associated Pyrethroids using Solid-Phase Microextraction [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 144-152
Effect of Calcium on Uptake and Accumulation of Antimony and Calcium by Rice Seedling in Solution Culture  PDF download
Xiang Meng1,2, Huang Yizong2*, Cai Liqun1*, Bao Qiongli2, Huang Yongchun2, Wang Xiaoling3, Gao Zhu3, Yu Faxin3, Qiao Min4, Hu Ying4, Jin Shulan5, Li Ji4, Wang Fei4
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140702001
Abstract: An experiment with solution culture was conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous calcium on seedling growth, absorption and bioaccumulation of Ca and Sb under the stresses of two forms of antimony- Sb(III) and Sb(Ⅴ). The results showed that Sb(III) and Sb(Ⅴ) could inhibit rice growth and Sb(III) was more toxic than Sb(Ⅴ). There were significant differences of Ca uptake and accumulation between different Sb species in the solution. The addition of 30 μmol•L-1 Sb(III) could significantly decreased Ca concentration in rice roots and shoots by 15.7% and 49.4%, but 30 μmol•L-1 Sb(Ⅴ) could significantly increased Ca concentration in rice roots and shoots by 26.2% and 50.4%, respectively, compared with the control, under 5.0 mmol•L-1 Ca. The external addition of Ca could significantly decrease rice roots and shoots Sb concentration. Application of 5.0 and 20 mmol•L-1 Ca decreased Sb concentration in rice roots and shoots by 19.0%-79.4% and 42.6%-71.8% compared with the control under 30 μmol•L-1 Sb(III) treatment. Application of 5.0 and 20 mmol•L-1 Ca decreased Sb concentration in rice roots and shoots by 34.3%-70.6% and 74.1%-84.6% compared with the control under 30 μmol•L-1 Sb(Ⅴ) treatment. In addition, Ca could affect the distribution and bioaccumulation of Sb in rice roots and shoots. The results demonstrated that Sb pollution in farmland can be alleviated by adding Ca fertilizer, and protect human health from Sb pollution.
Citation: Xiang Meng1,2, Huang Yizong2*, Cai Liqun1*, Bao Qiongli2, Huang Yongchun2, Wang Xiaoling3, Gao Zhu3, Yu Faxin3, Qiao Min4, Hu Ying4, Jin Shulan5, Li Ji4, Wang Fei4 Effect of Calcium on Uptake and Accumulation of Antimony and Calcium by Rice Seedling in Solution Culture[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 153-160
The Effects of Surface Ozone on the Yields of Rice and Winter Wheat in China  PDF download
Tong Lei1,2,*, Wang Xiaoke3, Xiao Hang1,2, Huang Zhongwen1,2
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140726002
Abstract: As the long-term air monitoring data indicates, surface ozone concentration in China has been rapidly increasing, which could seriously affect the growth of rice and winter wheat. To accurately assess the ozone-induced risk, the dose-response relationships of rice and winter wheat were analyzed for five regions, which include Beijing, Dingxing, Jiangdu, Jiaxing, and Dongguan. The yield responses to ozone for both crops varied with experimental regions and crop varieties. The rice grown in the north is more sensitive to ozone compared with those from south regions. These indicate that climate characteristic of habitat and crop cultivars are two important factors in influencing crops’ sensitivities to ozone. Yields of both crops decreased rapidly with the increase of ozone exposure dose, and winter wheat was found to be more sensitive to ozone than rice. Both rice and winter wheat are more sensitive to ozone in the free air concentration enrichment (FACE) experiment than those within the open-top chambers (OTCs) system. Based on these dose-response results and the predicative surface ozone concentration of China, the yield losses in the five major Chinese production areas by 2020 are estimated to be 3.2%~28.8% and 7.8%~36.9% for rice and winter wheat, respectively. Therefore, in order to reduce the risks of ozone pollutions on crop production, more effective measures are needed to be taken, such as emission reduction of O3 precursor and breeding or genetic modification of O3-resistant cultivars.
Citation: Tong Lei1,2,*, Wang Xiaoke3, Xiao Hang1,2, Huang Zhongwen1,2 The Effects of Surface Ozone on the Yields of Rice and Winter Wheat in China [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 161-169
Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Model for Fenvalerate in Mice   PDF download
Liang Ying1,2, Ding Ying2, Zhang Liuquan2, Liu Xianjin1,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140808001
Abstract: The physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model was developed to simulate the process of absorption, distribution and metabolism of fenvalerate in mice’s body after intravenous injection. The PBTK model for fenvalerate contains five compartments: liver, lung, kidney, rapidly perfused tissues and slowly perfused tissues. The change rate of the amount of fenvalerate in the compartments could be described by the mass balance differential equation. The toxicokinetic data were simulated according to Euler’s method of numerical integration. The concentrations of fenvalerate in the liver, lung and blood were obtained for exposing to 0.5 mg•kg-1、2.5 mg•kg-1、10 mg•kg-1 fenvalerate. The simulation results were validated by comparing them with experimental measurements. It was found that the simulation results obtained were very close to experimental results. This method could predict the toxicokinetics of injectionof fenvalerate in mice. By this model, the internal doses of organism exposed to hazards could be estimated providing a new route for assessing the hazards.
Citation: Liang Ying1,2, Ding Ying2, Zhang Liuquan2, Liu Xianjin1,* Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Model for Fenvalerate in Mice [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(1): 170-176
Impacts of Exogenous Roxarsone on Arsenic Accumulation and Growth of Sediment Microorganisms in Aquatic Microcosms   PDF download
Wang Sufen1,2, Ning Jianfeng1,3, Cui Lihua1,﹡, Xu Qiaoling1, Li Guowan1
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140913001
Abstract: To investigate the toxic effects of roxarsone (ROX) on the aquatic ecosystems, the simulated aquatic microcosms were employed to study the effects of exogenous ROX on arsenic accumulation and growth of microorganisms in sediments. Six ROX concentrations including 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg•L-1 were used in this study. Results showed that arsenic content in water column and sediment increased with the amount of ROX application. However, as the ROX exposure time elapsed, the arsenic content decreased in the water column but increased in the sediment. In addition, arsenic accumulation in the sharksuckers and hornwort bodies was observed. When the aquatic ecosystem was treated with the ROX concentration of 160 mg•L-1, the sharksuckers showed a significant ROX toxicity with a death rate of 100% within one day. It was observed that hornwort had higher capacity of arsenic accumulation with a concentration range from 398.1-1538.91 mg•kg-1 As after 32 d exposure. Different concentrations of ROX can inhibit the growth of fungus, bacteria and denitrifying bacteria, whereas the growth of actinomyces and ammonification bacteria in sediment were promoted as exposed to the ROX environment. Furthermore, the growth of actinomyces in sediment was promoted significantly at 10 mg•L-1 ROX. In summary, exogenous ROX polluted water environment and re-transported and re-accumulated in different biotic and abiotic organisms, which resulted in toxicity of sharksucker and some microorganisms in the sediment.
Citation: Wang Sufen1,2, Ning Jianfeng1,3, Cui Lihua1,﹡, Xu Qiaoling1, Li Guowan1 Impacts of Exogenous Roxarsone on Arsenic Accumulation and Growth of Sediment Microorganisms in Aquatic Microcosms[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 177-183

 

Heavy Metal Ecological Risk of Surface Sediments in Dongting Lake and Its Tread  PDF download
Zhang Guanggui, Tian Qi, Guo Jing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140919001
Abstract: Although there are many studies on heavy metals in Dongting Lake sediments, the information regarding heavy metal ecological risk and its trend is little. This paper discussed the heavy metal ecological risk of surface sediments in Dongting Lake and its trend, based on sampling analysis of 9 representative monitoring sites in February 2012 and April 2013 and some historical monitoring data. Hakanson's Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) Method was employed in this paper. The results show that the contents of Cd, Hg, As, Cu and Pb in surface sediments range from 0.60 mg•kg-1 to 20.7 mg•kg-1, 0.090 mg•kg-1 to 0.640 mg•kg-1, 10.4 mg•kg-1 to 83.7 mg•kg-1, 17.9 mg•kg-1 to 70.9 mg•kg-1 and 16.9 mg•kg-1 to 95.8 mg•kg-1, respectively. The descending order is as follows: Pb>Cu>As>Cd>Hg. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments of Dongting Lake can be arranged as Cd>Hg>As>Pb>Cu. Cd and Hg are the main heavy metal risk pollutants, and Cd is the primary pollutant. The RI values of the whole lake are between 117.10 and 589.80, with an average value of 289.99. The spatial distribution of RI average values has certain characteristics. South Dongting Lake is the highest area, West Dongting Lake is the middle one, and East Dongting Lake is the lowest region. According to the classification standard proposed by Hakanson, the Cd in South Dongting Lake has extremely high ecological risk. The ecological risk level of Dongting Lake is medium. In terms of the preliminary analysis, the ecological risks of other heavy metals have risen, to some extent, in the past 30 years, except Hg. And Cd’s rising trend is obvious. The heavy metal ecological risk level in Dongting Lake has changed from low risk to medium. Therefore, heavy metal pollution control in Dongting Lake basin should focus on Cd in Xiangjiang River and Zishui River.
Citation: Zhang Guanggui, Tian Qi, Guo Jing Heavy Metal Ecological Risk of Surface Sediments in Dongting Lake and Its Tread [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 184-191
DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood Red Cells of Zebrafish Induced by Co-treatment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)  PDF download
Zhuang Changlu1,2, Wang Shutao2,*, Du Jia2, Wang Weiqing2, You Hong2, Su Rongjun1
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20140921002
Abstract: In order to assess the effect of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on aquatic environment and fish, zebrafish was chosen as a model animal, and then the DNA damage in peripheral blood red cells of zebrafish after exposing to PFOS and MWCNTs was studied. The adult zebrafish were exposed to PFOS (0.2、0.4、0.8、1.6 mg•L-1 )、MWCNTs (50 mg•L-1)、PFOS MWCNTs (0.2 50、0.4 50、0.8 50、1.6 50 mg•L-1) and the control for 30 days. Then the peripheral blood red cells of zebrafish were tested for micronucleus and comet assay. The results showed that both PFOS and MWCNTs induced DNA damage in peripheral blood red cells of zebrafish. Micronucleus frequency (MNF)、Olive tail moment (OTM) and tail length (TL) were (36.3±0.25)‰、(87.91±14.90) μm and (250.49±34.71) μm in 1.6 mg•L-1 PFOS treatment group, respectively. DNA damage was reduced in peripheral blood red cells of zebrafish after co-exposure of PFOS and MWCNTs. The MNF, OTM and TL in PFOS co-exposure groups showed a significant reduction compared with that in PFOS single exposure. The MNF, OTM and TL in 1.6 mg•L-1 PFOS co-exposure were reduced 24.7%、68.9% and 52.4%, compared with that in 1.6 mg•L-1 PFOS, respectively. So MWCNTs could reduce DNA damage of PFOS in peripheral blood red cells of zebrafish at the experimental concentrations.
Citation: Zhuang Changlu1,2, Wang Shutao2,*, Du Jia2, Wang Weiqing2, You Hong2, Su Rongjun1 DNA Damage in Peripheral Blood Red Cells of Zebrafish Induced by Co-treatment of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 192-199
A Study of the Laboratory Conditions of Bellamya aeruginosa   PDF download
Qiang Fan1,2, Lihui An2,*, Bingchun Tao1, Qingkui Wang1
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141017002
Abstract: Bellamya aeruginosa could be used as a potential ecotoxicological model organism; however, the first requirement for future research is to optimize laboratory conditions. The present study optimized food, water depth, bottom materials, density, and calcium ion concentration for Bellamya aeruginosa cultured under artificial conditions using weight gain ratio as the endpoint, and then followed by evaluation of different anesthetics including MgCl2?2H2O, ethanol, eugenol, procaine hydrochloride and MS-222. Results indicated that growth was optimal with the following conditions: feeding fresh C. vulgaris, culturing at a density of 6?L-1, keeping the water depth at 10 ~ 15 cm, using fine soil as the bottom material and keeping the calcium ion concentration at 30 mg?L-1. Furthermore, results showed that MgCl2?2H2O should be the primary choice of anesthetic for this organism. These conditions will result in proper rearing and maintenance of Bellamya aeruginosa for use as a model organism in future.
Citation: Qiang Fan1,2, Lihui An2,*, Bingchun Tao1, Qingkui Wang1 A Study of the Laboratory Conditions of Bellamya aeruginosa [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 200-208
Lu Chunfeng*, Yang Yu, Shang Yu, Wang Peijun, Chen Tingyu, Wang Limin, Zhu Qiushuang, Zhang Jingfan  PDF download
Ma Yan, Wu Fengchang, Tan Weiqiang, Feng Chenglian, Zhang Ruiqing, Wang Ying, Bai Yingchen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141020003
Abstract: In order to investigate the role of ROS-mediated oxidative stress in INH-induced L-02 cytotoxicity and the intervention of Quercetin, the injury model of hepatocyte L-02 in vitro induced by INH was established. The cells were assigned into the control group (A), INH group (B), Quercetin low dose group (C) and Quercetin high dose group (D). The activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the activity of alanine transaminase (ALT) in L-02 cells supernatant were determined by biochemical methods; The level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by fluorescent probe 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) in L-02 cells; The content of malondialdehyde (MDA), the content of glutathione (GSH) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were analyzed with colorimetric method. The results showed that compared with the control group, INH remarkably increased the activity of AST and the activity of ALT in L-02 cells supernatant, the level of mitochondrial ROS and the content of MDA in L-02 cells (P<0.01), and significantly decreased the content of GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) (P<0.01). Compared with the INH group, the activity of AST in L-02 cells supernatant, the level of ROS in mitochondria and the content of MDA in L-02 cells of Quercetin low dose group were decreased (P<0.05), but the activity of SOD was increased (P<0.05); While high dose Quercetin could significantly reduce the activity of AST and the activity of ALT in L-02 cells supernatant, the level of mitochondrial ROS and the content of MDA in L-02 cells (P<0.01), and significantly increased the content of GSH, the activity of SOD and the activity of GSH-Px (P<0.01). Compared with the Quercetin low dose group, the protective effects of high dose Quercetin were more obvious (P<0.05). Therefore, ROS-mediated oxidative stress plays an important role in INH-induced L-02 cell toxicity, and Quercetin has a protective effect on L-02 cell oxidative damage induced by INH.
Citation: Lu Chunfeng*, Yang Yu, Shang Yu, Wang Peijun, Chen Tingyu, Wang Limin, Zhu Qiushuang, Zhang Jingfan The Role of ROS-mediated Oxidative Stress in INH-induced Cytotoxicity and the Intervention of Quercetin [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 209-215
Influence of Arsenic Stress on the Photosynthetic Pigments and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics of Different Tobacco Cultivars  PDF download
Wu Minlan1,2, Li Honghong2, Jia Yangyang2, Yang Lintong2, Wang Guo2,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141022003
Abstract: In order to study the influence of different concentrations of arsenic on the photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of tobaccos three tobacco cultivars including , K326 and Yunyan 87 were pot-planted and treated with six varied concentrations of sodium arsenite solutions, ranging from 0 to 100 mg•kg-1. Leaf photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were determined, and harmful symptoms of tobaccos were observed at regular intervals.The results showed that the response of tobacco to arsenic stress varies according to arsenic concentrations, treated time and tobacco cultivars; leaf photosynthetic pigment contents and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters are enhanced at the condition of low arsenic concentrations, and inhibited at the condition of high arsenic concentrations; the growth of three tobacco cultivars is inhibited when treated with 40 mg•kg-1 arsenic concentration, and the higher the arsenic concentration, the more obvious the symptoms of arsenic stress. The harmful symptoms of K326 and Yunyan 87 are more obvious, when compared with Cuibi 1, they have a higher susceptibility towards arsenic stress. With the extension of arsenic stress time, the tolerance of tobacco strengthens, and the susceptibility to arsenic stress weakens.
Citation: Wu Minlan1,2, Li Honghong2, Jia Yangyang2, Yang Lintong2, Wang Guo2,* Influence of Arsenic Stress on the Photosynthetic Pigments and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Characteristics of Different Tobacco Cultivars [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 216-223
Cadmium Toxicology to Cultured BY-2 Cells and the Relief Effects of Salicylic Acid to the Cadmium Toxicity  PDF download
Zhang Mingxuan, Li Yingbang, Liu Aiyun, Zhang Xuewen*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141030001
Abstract: The toxicity to immobilized plants is one of the most harmful effects of heavy mental cadmium to the ecological environment. In this paper the toxicity and mechanism of Cd2 to plants cells were analyzed by fluorescence microscope and confocal laser scanning microscope observation in GFP membrane labeled BY-2 cell. The relief effects of salicylic acid (SA) treatment to the Cd2 toxicity were also investigated. The results showed that the GFP fluorescence of the labeled cells was getting dimming after 3 h Cd2 treatment. The cells and vacuoles were apparently shrunk after 6 h. All the cells were dead after 9 h treatment. When SA was also added during the Cd2 treatment, the survival time of the treated cells were prolonged significantly. The SA and Cd2 treated cells also showed stronger fluorescence and better vacuolization compared to the Cd2 treatment. High fluorescence particles attached to the cell membrane were observed, indicating that there were wrapped Cd2 microcapsules formed in SA treatment cells. The results suggest that the SA treatment can relieve the toxicity of heavy metals both by high vacuolization in the cells and by membrane components retention of the heavy metals ion. The conclusion is that the microcapsule retention and vacuolization of the cells induced by SA is the mechanism of the SA toxicity relief.
Citation: Zhang Mingxuan, Li Yingbang, Liu Aiyun, Zhang Xuewen* Cadmium Toxicology to Cultured BY-2 Cells and the Relief Effects of Salicylic Acid to the Cadmium Toxicity [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 224-229
Comparison Study on the Acute Toxicity of 7 Metal Ions on the Rana chensinensis and Bufo gargarizans Tadpoles  PDF download
Ma Li, Wu Minyao, Wang Hongyuan*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141113002
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the acute toxicity of Cu2 ,Hg2 ,Cr6 ,Cd2 ,Li ,Al3 and Co2 on the Rana chensinensis and Bufo gargarizans tadpoles at Gosner stage 36. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values at 7 kinds of metal ions to the R. chensinensis and B. gargarizans tadpoles were calculated, respectively. In addition, morphological characters (fatness, liver index) of izans tadpoles at Gosner stage 36. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values at 7 kinds of metal ions to the and B. gargarizans tadpoles tadpoles were determined. The results showed that 96 h-LC50 of Cu2 ,Hg2 ,Cr6 ,Cd2 ,Li ,Al3 and Co2 for the R. chensinensis tadpoles were 0.270 mg•L-1, 0.803 mg•L-1, 2.375 mg•L-1, 7.351 mg•L-1, 11.273 mg•L-1, 17.265 mg•L-1 and 20.973 mg•L-1, respectively. While the 96 h-LC50 for the B. gargarizans tadpoles were 0.593 mg•L-1, 0.593 mg•L-1, 2.827 mg•L-1, 2.592 mg•L-1, 12.656 mg•L-1, 14.020 mg•L-1 and 57.435 mg•L-1, respectively. The sensitivity of the R. chensinensis to Cu2 , Cr6 , Li and Co2 were higher than those of B. gargarizans tadpoles. In contrast, the sensitivity of the B. gargarizans tadpoles to Hg2 、Cd2 、Al3 were higher than those of B. gargarizans tadpoles. Different morphological characters of the R. chensinensis and B. gargarizans tadpoles are one of the factors for their different sensitivity to the same metal ions.
Citation: Ma Li, Wu Minyao, Wang Hongyuan* Comparison Study on the Acute Toxicity of 7 Metal Ions on the Rana chensinensis and Bufo gargarizans Tadpoles[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 230-237
PFOS and ZnO Nanoparticles Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  PDF download
Du Jia , Wang Shutao1, Liu Zheng1, You Hong1,2,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141121001
Abstract: Oxidative stress and apoptosis to zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos induced by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and ZnO nanoparticles (Nano-ZnO) were investigated in this study. The embryos were exposed to PFOS (0、0.4、0.8 and 1.6 mg•L-1) single solutions,Nano-ZnO (0、12.5、25 and 50 mg•L-1) single solutions and PFOS plus Nano-ZnO (0、0.4 12.5、0.8 25 and 1.6 50 mg•L-1) mixture solutions for 144 hour post-fertilisation (hpf). Activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were measured in zebrafish after exposure for 144 hpf. At the same time, the levels of gene expression related to apoptosis (Bax, p53 and Bcl-2) were also measured. The results demonstrated that both PFOS and Nano-ZnO single- and co-exposure induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. In addition, PFOS plus Nano-ZnO exposure caused more serious oxidative stress and apoptosis than PFOS and Nano-ZnO single-exposure at above exposure concentrations. Several apoptosis pathways related genes such as Bax and p53 were significantly up-regulated in PFOS and Nano-ZnO co-exposure groups. Anti-apoptotic gene such as Bcl-2 was significantly down-regulated in PFOS and Nano-ZnO co-exposure groups. Under the toxicity ratio of 1:1, Nano-ZnO increased the toxicity of PFOS on oxidative stress and apoptosis in zebrafish embryos at the experimental concentrations.
Citation: Du Jia , Wang Shutao1, Liu Zheng1, You Hong1,2,* PFOS and ZnO Nanoparticles Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 238-247
A Preliminary Study of PCBs Exposure Levels in Amniotic Fluid for Pregnant Women in Guangzhou  PDF download
Chen Zhiyuan1,2, Zheng Zheng3, Song Xiaofei1,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141207001
Abstract: Randomly collected fetal amniotic fluid of single pregnant women whom were not occupational exposure to PCBs in Guangzhou, then analyzed PCBs exposures levels; Subjects' information such as clinical data (age, gestational age, BMI (body mass index, BMI)) and resident information was also collected for illustrating influence factors of PCBs exposure to pregnant women in Guangzhou. Results showed that Σ33PCBs concentrations in the amniotic fluid ranged from 15.91 to 324.38 ng•g-1. The average value was 114.34 ± 83.52 ng•g-1, and the median value was 84.85 ng•g-1. Decachlorobiphenyl exposure was found to be the lowest with an average value of 2.66±3.46 ng•g-1 and median value of 1.47 ng•g-1. Hexachlorobenzene were the highest (average value 28.79±33.84 ng•g-1, median 17.48 ng•g-1). 31 isomers were detected in this study (PCB 8, 28, 30, 49, 52, 70, 74, 77, 82, 87, 99, 101, 105, 114, 118, 126, 128, 138, 153, 156, 158, 166, 169, 170, 179, 180, 183, 187, 189, 198 and 209, respectively). Pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene and heptachlor were the major PCBs exposure and PCB 138 (4.73%), 179 (4.15%), 153 (3.92%), 183 (3.89%), 166 (3.77%), 187 (3.74% ) and 180 (3.67%) were the main components. Comparing to the United States, Spain, and Canada, respectively, PCBs exposure levels of Guangzhou pregnant women were extremely high. Statistical results showed that age and BMI were positively related to PCBs exposure significantly. Statistical results were more relevant when pregnant women lived in the industrial areas than non-industrial areas.
Citation: Chen Zhiyuan1,2, Zheng Zheng3, Song Xiaofei1,* A Preliminary Study of PCBs Exposure Levels in Amniotic Fluid for Pregnant Women in Guangzhou [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 248-255
Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Cadmium Released from Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots in Mice  PDF download
Wang Mengmeng1,2, Wang Jilong1,2, Sun Hubo1,3, Sun Zhiwei1,2, Huang Peili1,2,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141219001
Abstract: Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of cadmium ion (Cd2 ) released from cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) in mice were investigated. A total of 24 ICR male mice (24.7~26.8 g) were randomly divided into four groups, and exposed to different concentrations (0, 5, 50, 500 nmol) of CdTe QDs via tail vein injection. The control group was injected with normal saline. After 24 h of the treatment, the organ coefficient and pathological changes of livers and kidneys, the serum biochemical indexes, hematologic indexes were measured. Metallothionein (MT) was selected as a biomarker of Cd2 exposure and determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the blood urea nitrogen levels in serum of mice were all decreased (P< 0.01) without obvious changes of the organ coefficient (P > 0.05). Pathologic examination demonstrated hydropic degeneration of hepatocyte around the central vein, hepatocyte disorder, distal tubular expansion in liver and renal tubular muddy swollen, renal artery expansion hyperemia in kidneys. Compared with the control group, CdTe QDs exposed groups significantly induced the MT expression (P < 0.05). Since the MT levels increased along with the exposure dosages, it suggested that the free Cd2 might be released from CdTe QDs in liver or in kidneys. In summary, the results showed that CdTe QDs could induce toxicity and further pathologic changes of liver and kidneys, which might be positively correlated with the Cd2 released from CdTe QDs in mice.
Citation: Wang Mengmeng1,2, Wang Jilong1,2, Sun Hubo1,3, Sun Zhiwei1,2, Huang Peili1,2,* Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity of Cadmium Released from Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots in Mice [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 256-261
Interference effects of bisphenol A on Platymonas helgolanidica  PDF download
Xiang Kunlun1, WANG Jingjing2, TANG Si1, DUAN Shunshan1,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20141219003
Abstract: The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the growth of Platymonas helgolanidica were studied, so as to explore the ecological toxicity effects of BPA on marine microalgae. The exposure concentrations of BPA were 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg•L-1. The parameters such as cell densities, antioxidant enzyme systems , as well as 96 h EC50 of P. helgolanidica under different BPA concentrations were measured during the experimental period. The results showed that 96h-EC50 of BPA for P. helgolanidica was 9.32 mg•L-1, indicating that BPA was a high toxic pollutant to P. helgolanidica. When P. helgolanidica was exposed to BPA at the above concentrations, the growth of P helgolanidica was inhibited: both the cell density and cell pigment content was decreased, which was demonstrated by dose effect-relationships. Besides, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and glutathione reductase (GR) in cells were disturbed in the study.
Citation: Xiang Kunlun1, Wang Jingjing2, Tang Si1, Duan Shunshan1,* Interference effects of bisphenol A on Platymonas helgolanidica [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 262-267
Study on the Oxidative Damage of Mouse Kidney Tissue Induced by Diisononyl Phthalate   PDF download
Wu Yang1, 2, Yan Biao2, Jiao Ming1, Liao Wenli1, Chen Jiaoe1, Yang Xu2, Ma Ping1,2,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150105002
Abstract: Diisononyl phthalate (DINP) has been widely used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products and is ubiquitous as a substitute; however, its toxicity due to exposure remains to be determined. This study investigated the oxidative damage induced by diisononyl phthalate on mouse kidney tissue. Kunming mice were randomly grouped into five groups and orally administered with drugs daily for fourteen days; the groups included one solvent control group, four diisononyl phthalate groups, the exposure doses of disononyl phthalate groups were 0.5, 5, 50 and 500 mg•kg-1 respectively. Kidney tissue sections were isolated and stained for pathological observations under microscope. Contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in kidney tissue homogenates,and DNA-protein crosslink (DPC) coefficients in the kidney cell suspensions were measured. Results showed that kidney tissue injury was severed gradually with the increase of diisononyl phthalate exposure concentration, contents of ROS, MDA, 8-OHdG and DPC coefficients increased gradually in a dose-dependent manner, whereas GSH content decreased accordingly. In the 5 mg•kg-1 exposure group, ROS contents and DPC coefficients were higher compare with the control group (P<0.05, P< 0.01). In the high-dose exposure groups (50 and 500 mg•kg-1), there were significant differences in levels of each biomarker compare with the control group (P<0.05,P<0.01). Data suggest that diisononyl phthalate at certain doses (≥50 mg•kg-1) can induce damage in mice kidney,and oxidative damage is involved in diisononyl phthalate-induced kidney toxicity.
Citation: Wu Yang1, 2, Yan Biao2, Jiao Ming1, Liao Wenli1, Chen Jiaoe1, Yang Xu2, Ma Ping1,2,* Study on the Oxidative Damage of Mouse Kidney Tissue Induced by Diisononyl Phthalate [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 268-275
The Effects of α7nAChR on the Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury Chloride  PDF download
Cui Jing1, Yang Shengsen2, Lu Zhiyan3, Yang Weicai1 Tian Jianying1,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150112001
Abstract: To investigate the neurotoxicity of environmental pollutant, methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) on the nervous system. The PC 12 cell viability was detected by MTT assay; the gene expression level of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, α7nAChR, was evaluated by immunofluorescence, Dot-Blot and qRT-PCR both at protein and mRNA levels when PC12 cells were treated with MeHgCl. The results demonstrated that MeHgCl impaired the cell viability and inhibited α7nAChR gene expression both in transcriptional and translational levels in a dose-dependent manner. These results illustrated that the neurotoxicity of MeHgCl might be associated with the inhibition of α7nAChR gene expression.
Citation: Cui Jing1, Yang Shengsen2, Lu Zhiyan3, Yang Weicai1 Tian Jianying1,* The Effects of α7nAChR on the Neurotoxicity of Methylmercury Chloride [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 276-280
Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene and Phenanthrene on DNA Damage of Hemolymph Cell in Sinonovacula constricta  PDF download
Jiang Mei1, Li Lei1, Shen Xinqiang1,Xu Gaopeng2,Yang Jieqing2
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150208001
Abstract: The paper reported the DNA damage effect of Benzo[a]pyrene(BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE) on the calm Sinonovacula constricta under different concentration conditions with the single cell microgel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique. The calm were treated with concentrations (BaP: 0.45, 0.15, 0.05 ?g•L-1 and PHE: 0.45, 0.15, 0.05 ?g•L-1) in control group was 0.00 ?g•L-1 for 15 days and were removed pollution for 6 days. The result showed the tail DNA percentage (DNA%) and TL/D of the 0.45 ?g•L-1 groups were significantly different from the control group (P <0.05) after 7 days exposure period. Furthermore, the damage intensity of treated groups increased gradually with respect to the increasing of Bap and PHE. Under the same concentration, the tail DNA % and TL/D increased gradually with the time of exposure. The DNA damage induced by BaP and PHE was very serious under the concentration of 0.45 ?g•L-1. There was significant time-and dose-dependent damage to the hemolymph cells. In addition, the toxic effect of BaP was much more than PHE. The comet assay was proven to be a useful tool for detecting DNA damage induced by PAH in marine hemolymph cells.DNA damage in hemolymph cells of could indicate the effects of BaP and PHE in marine environment as a good biomarker to be used in early warning and monitoring.
Citation: Jiang Mei1, Li Lei1, Shen Xinqiang1,Xu Gaopeng2,Yang Jieqing2 Effects of Benzo[a]pyrene and Phenanthrene on DNA Damage of Hemolymph Cell in Sinonovacula constricta[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 281-287
Evaluation of Combined Effects of NPCB and Heavy Metals on BEAS-2B Cells   PDF download
Tian Dongdong1,2, Yuan Xiaoyan2, Zhou Wei2, Jia Li 2, He Jun2 , Zhang Lijun2 , Wang Yimei 2 Zhao Jun2, Peng Shuangqing1,2,*
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150213001
Abstract: NPCB and heavy metals are representative components of airborne particulate matter. In the present study, we investigated the combined effects of NPCB with Pb/Cr/Cd on the viability and LDH leakage of BEAS-2B Cells. After co-exposure to NPCB and heavy metals (Pb/Cr/Cd) for 24 h, cell viability and LDH leakage were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) and LDH Cytotoxicity Assay Kit, respectively. The types of combined effects were determined by factorial design analysis of combined effects on cell viability and LDH leakage. Compared to the NPCB and heavy metals (Pb/Cr/Cd) had control group /NPCB group and the Pb group, co-exposure to low dose of Pb (125 μmol•L-1) and NPCB had no interaction on cell viability, but showed antagonistic joint action on LDH leakage; co-exposure to high dose of Pb (1 000 μmol•L-1) and NPCB showed a synergistic effect on cell viability, but had no interaction on LDH leakage. Co-exposure to Cr/Cd and NPCB showed a synergistic effect on cell viability; whereas co-exposure to low dose of Cr/Cd and NPCB showed no interaction on LDH leakage, and co-exposure to high dose of Cr/Cd and NPCB showed a synergistic effect on LDH leakage. NPCB and heavy metals had combined effects on cytotoxicity. The modes of combined effects were different to different metals, different doses and different toxic endpoints.
Citation: Tian Dongdong1,2, Yuan Xiaoyan2, Zhou Wei2, Jia Li2, He Jun2, Zhang Lijun2, Wang Yimei2 Zhao Jun2, Peng Shuangqing1,2,* Evaluation of Combined Effects of NPCB and Heavy Metals on BEAS-2B Cells [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 288-296
Impact of Dimethyl Phthalate on the Activities of Oxidative Stress Enzymes and Growth of Typical Bacteria (PFOS)  PDF download
Wang Zhigang*, Hu Ying, Cui Jingwen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150224001
Abstract: Many species of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) may have a variety of harmful health effects to human beings, and VOCs play a significant role in the atmospheric environment. The pollution of VOCs in the atmospheric environment of some regions in China has become a serious problem in recent years; therefore, pollution control of VOCs in the atmospheric environment is important for the improvement of ambient air quality and the protection of human health. Atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs have been formulated in some developed countries or ambient air quality guidelines of VOCs have been designated by some international organizations, which is very helpful to the implementation of the control countermeasures of VOCs in the atmosphere or to the environmental management of VOCs pollution. However, atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs have not been developed in China up to now, thus it is necessary to carry out the systematic research work in this field in China. In this paper, some atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs formulated by developed countries and international organizations were first summarized, then the study status of atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs in China was introduced, and the research needs of atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs in China were analyzed. Finally, the suggestion was put forwarded for the future research on atmospheric environment criteria of VOCs in China.
Citation:Wang Zhigang*, Hu Ying, Cui Jingwen Impact of Dimethyl Phthalate on the Activities of Oxidative Stress Enzymes and Growth of Typical Bacteria[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 297-303
Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Muscle with Relation to the Growth of Two Marine Fish Species  PDF download
Le Quang Dung1,2**, Nguyen Viet Linh1, Nguyen Xuan Thanh1, Nguyen Duc Cu1, Vu Van Tu3, Takaomi Arai2
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130909001
Abstract: Heavy metal concentrations in muscle and their relation to the growth of two marine fish species, including tonguefish (Cynoglossus arel) and mullet (Mugil cephalus), were studied. The samples were collected in Bach Dang estuary and concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and V) in muscle of the fishes were determined. The result showed that the accumulated trend of heavy metal is different between fish species. The concentration of As, Zn, Mn, V, Cu, Pb, Co and Cd in tonguefish were 73.7±30.6, 22.82±4.87, 3.44±2.13, 1.61±0.15, 0.71±0.13, 0.45±0.24, 0.03±0.02, and 0.02±0.02, g•g-1, respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of Zn, As, V, Mn, Cu, Pb, Co and Cd in mullet were 83.41±19.68, 9.78±1.92, 1.36±0.54, 1.29±0.51, 0.65±0.12, 0.42±0.20, 0.06±0.03 and 0.03±0.01, g•g-1, respectively. Comparison of metal levels among these species indicated that the concentrations of As and Mn in tonguefish were significantly higher than those in mullet, whereas Zn levels in mullet were found to be higher than that in tonguefish. There is no significant differences of Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and V levels in muscle between two species. Significant inversed relationships between concentration levels of metals and lengths of tonguefish were found for Mn, Cu and Zn, but not for As, Cd, Pb, and V. There were no significant relationships between the heavy metal concentrations and the length of mullet. In general, decreases of the heavy metal concentrations corresponded to the increases of fish body lengths, particularly for As, Co, Cu, Mn and V and the exception for Cd. Terefore reduced risks were associated with consuming bigger mullet fish, and increased risks of As and Cd were associated with consuming bigger tonguefish in Bach Dang river mouth. Citation: Le Quang Dung1,2*, Nguyen Viet Linh1, Nguyen Xuan Thanh1, Nguyen Duc Cu1, Vu Van Tu3, Takaomi Arai2 Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Muscle with Relation to the Growth of Two Marine Fish Species )[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 304-310
Residual Levels of Antibiotics in Aquatic Products in Beijing Market)  PDF download
Yuan Shengguang1,*, Cui Yanfang2 , Zhang Wenjing1
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20150422001
Abstract: To survey the contamination level of antibiotics in aquatic products in Beijing market, crucian carp, carp, grass carp and chub of different weights were sampled from several major farmer markets in Beijing and ten antibiotics including tetracycline, sulfa antibiotics and quinolones were analyzed by based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-MS/MS).The result showed that only four antibiotics, i.e. sulfamethazine, marbofloxacin, norfloxacin and enrofloxacin, could be detected in some fish samples (2.1%,4.2%,16.7%,46.9% detection rate), while others were below detection limits. Among the detected norfloxacin and enrofloxacin in crucian carp, carp, grass carp and chub, with the concentration of antibiotics, sulfamethazine and marbofloxacin were only detected in grass carp, while enrofloxacin in carp significantly higherthan crucian carp, followed by grass carp and chub, respectively. Only enrofloxacin in fish samples exceeded the maximum residue level (MRL in NY5070-2002, 50 μg•kg-1). The concentrations of sulfamethazine, marbofloxacin and norfloxacin were higher in larger fish (with the highest concentration of 34.8、179.6、39.4 μg•kg-1) and not detected in small fish, indicating the accumulation processes. In general, aquatic fish products in Beijing market showed contaminated by antibiotics, while their residuals were mostly below MRL values. Best management practice is needed in cultivating fishery and in antibiotics usage.
Citation: Yuan Shengguang1,*, Cui Yanfang2 , Zhang Wenjing1 Residual Levels of Antibiotics in Aquatic Products in Beijing Market)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2015, 10(3): 311-317
 
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