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Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, August 2013, Volume 8, Number 6 

       

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology (ISSN: 1673-5897) focuses on fundamental research on the mechanisms of toxicity of the environmental pollutants at the community, species, tissue, cellular, subcellular and molecular levels, including aspects of uptake, metabolism and excretion of toxicants.

We welcome the interdisciplinary studies of environmental chemistry and toxicology describing environmental fate and biological fate of pollutants, novel analytical technologies, techniques, and methods such as biomarkers, biosensors, bioanalytical systems, QSARs and QSPRs.

The applied outcome of complex ecotoxicological research such as

developing the science-based Environmental Quality Criteria (EQC), standard toxicity tests, techniques, and methods for ecotoxicological evaluation of the environment is also within the scope of Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology.

The journal includes not only original research papers but technical notes and review articles, both invited and submitted.

Although most of our papers are written in Chinese, papers written in English are highly welcome.

Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology has been indexed and abstracted in Chemical Abstracts, Biological Abstracts and BIOSIS Previews since 2007.

Reviews
Influence of Bioturbation on Fate and Bioavailability of Sediment-Associated Contaminants  PDF download
Pang Junxiao, You Jing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120822001
Abstract: Hydrophobic organic contaminants and heavy metals tend to bind to the solid phases including bed sediments and suspended particles, in aquatic ecosystems. Sediment-associated contaminants may be released to water body under certain conditions. Bioturbation caused by the activities of benthic organisms is one of the factors affecting fate of chemicals in sediment. By altering sediment geochemistry characteristics, the bioturbation influenced on distribution, transport, bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in sediment. This paper reviewed the recent studies on how bioturbation affects environmental fate and risks of sediment-associated contaminants, with a focus on movements of sediment particles, alteration of characteristics of water body, desorption of contaminants from sediment, and quantitative characterization of bioturbation. In the future, more studies will be required to better understand the effects of bioturbation on multiple classes of contaminants, the influence of bioturbation on bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants to the co-exposed organisms, as well as the quantitative characterization of bioturbation.
Citation: Pang Junxiao, You Jing. Influence of Bioturbation on Fate and Bioavailability of Sediment-Associated Contaminants [J].Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology,2013,8(6): 805-816
Potential Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance Induced by Persistent Organic Pollutants  PDF download
Wang Jing, Du Yuguo, Shang Minghui, Chen Qiang, Chen Chunying
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121207002
Abstract: The incidence of insulin reisistance syndrome has increased at a globally alarming rate, being a serious challenge to public health in 21th century. Large scale epidemiological survey has indicated the relationship of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and insulin resistance. Impaired insulin signaling is a common cause of insulin resistance in essential. Investigation has indicated that POPs, such as TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) and OCPs (organochlorine pesticides), accumulated and stored in adipose tissue, could interfere cell signaling of AhR or PPARs receptor, induce oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, promote TNFα secrection and its related inflammatory cell signaling. After the interference of cellular signal transduction, POPs probably disrupt the normal phosphoration of insulin receptor (InsR) or insulin receptor substrate-1/2 (IRS-1/2) resulting in insulin resistance induction, which may provide the potential mechanisms of diabetes etiology.
Citation: Wang Jing, Du Yuguo, Shang Minghui, Chen Qiang, Chen Chunying Potential Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance Induced by Persistent Organic Pollutants[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(5): 817-823
Characterization and Analysis of Nanomaterials in Packaging and Food  PDF download
Shang Minghui, Chen Qiang, Chen Chunying
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121117001
Abstract: With rapid development of nanotechnologies, manufactured nanomaterials have been widely used in packaging and food industry, such as agricultural cultivation, food processing, food packaging, and food security. However, the safe application of nanomaterials (NMs) highly dependent on the full understanding of their biological and environmental effects. Therefore, the biological effects of nanomaterials are attracting considerable concern worldwide. Meanwhile, the safety issue of the nanocomposites and nano-foods has become the bottlenecks of their development and applications. Therefore, it is important to analyze the amount and/or release of nanomaterials in nano-foods and their migration. Further risk evaluation of the nanomaterials used in the packaging and food industry is required. In this paper, current applications of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in packing and food, and related analytical approaches including microscopy, chromatography, spectroscopy and related techniques to determine NMs in food were reviewed. Combined techniques are necessary to characterize the NMs due to their complexity of the physical and chemical properties. In addition, the challenges of the analytical approaches were discussed.
Citation: Shang Minghui, Chen Qiang, Chen ChunyingCharacterization and Analysis of Nanomaterials in Packaging and Food[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 824-838
Research Articles
Effects of Veterinary Antibiotics on Soil Microbial Community: A Review (PFOS)  PDF download
Liu Bei, Li Yanxia, Zhang Xuelian, Wang Jing, Liao Chaozi, Wu Songlin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121112001
Abstract: Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in livestock industry to cure animal diseases or promote animal growth. However, they can not be absorbed completely in the digestive tract of animals, approximately 40%~90% of VAs will be excreted as parent compound or their metabolites. VAs were accumulated in the agricultural soils with manure application and thus potentially impact soil microbial community or promote the emergence of resistant bacteria in the soil. In this paper, the situation of VAs residual levels in animal excreta and soils were reviewed. In addition, because of antibiotics residuals in soil system, the adverse impacts on structure and function of soil microbial community, as well as pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) of microbial community were summarized. Furthermore, the key factors that may influence the microbial toxicity of antibiotics and co-tolerance of microbial community were particularly discussed. On the basis of current studies on the VAs, the tendency for the future research in this field was discussed and suggested.
Citation: Liu Bei, Li Yanxia, Zhang Xuelian, Wang Jing, Liao Chaozi, Wu SonglinEffects of Veterinary Antibiotics on Soil Microbial Community: A Review (PFOS)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 839-846 
Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Heavy Metal Translocation and Transformation in the Soil-Plant Continuum  PDF download
Wu Songlin, Zhang Xin, Chen Baodong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121019001
Abstract: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is a group of ubiquitous fungi that can establish symbiosis with most terrestrial plants. AM symbiosis can improve plant growth and affect heavy metal (HM) uptake and accumulation by plants under HM contaminations, for which AMF is considered to be greatly valuable in phytoremediation of HM contaminated soils. Based on the main line of HM translocation from rhizosphere soil to plant roots and subsequent partitioning in plants, this paper introduced the influences of AMF on HM environmental behavior during these processes, with focus on the mycorrhizal effects on heavy metal speciation in rhizosphere and the specific role of AMF in heavy metal uptake by plants. Finally, future studies on mechanisms underlying mycorrhizal effects on heavy metal tolerance and potential use of AMF for soil remediation were proposed.
Citation:Wu Songlin, Zhang Xin, Chen BaodongEffects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Heavy Metal Translocation and Transformation in the Soil-Plant Continuum[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 847-856
The Technology and Progress in Research of the Immunotoxicity of Environmental Pollutants )  PDF download
Li Xuan, Yin Daqiang, Yu Zhenyang, Chen Xiaoxue
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120831001
Abstract: With the development of immunotoxicology and the increase of awareness of immunotoxicity, researches on the immunotoxicity of foreign substances became more and more popular. At home and abroad, Many researches had shown that most pollutants have immunotoxicity. And the mechanisms behind these immunotoxicity were different. This paper introduced the concept and research technology of immunotoxicity, summarized the use of these research methods in the area of environmental toxicology and raised the shortage of current immunotoxicity researches.
Citation:Li Xuan, Yin Daqiang, Yu Zhenyang, Chen XiaoxueThe Technology and Progress in Research of the Immunotoxicity of Environmental Pollutants)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 857-863
Effect of Acid Stress on the Early Life Stages of Sargassum horneri   PDF download
Chen Ziqiang, Sun Qinghai, Chen Quanzhen, Sun Jianzhang, Zeng Jiangning
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120713001
Abstract: The spores and germlings of macroalgae were regarded as the life history stages which are most susceptible to various environmental stresses, including acid stress. Several experiments were conducted to explore the impact of low pH (3.5, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5 were included) on the early stage of macroalgae, taking the example of Sargassum horneri , involving the spore and germling stages. In the spore experiment, the spores of S. horneri were treated with acidic seawater before and after attachment, respectively. The attachment percent and mortality were calculated to assess the impact of low pH on the spores. In the germling experiment, the germlings of S. horneri were exposed to acid stress constantly and the mortality was calculated to measure the lethal effect of low pH on the germlings. The results indicated that:1)In the short time experiments, the acidity significantly affected the adhesion of spores, while the adhesion ratio decreased with pH value. 2)The adhesion ratio decreased with the exposure time. Exposure time affects the adhesion of spores significantly,with no interaction with pH value. 3)After the spores attaching sufficiently, the survival of spores has a short-term acid stress,which does not significantly affect the survival of spores. Once spore firmly anchored to the substratum, the survival rate of spores was not affected significantly by exposing acid stress. Under long-term acid exposure, significant decreases of the germlings survival in all treatment groups were found compared with the control group. In conclusion, low pH severely affects thesurvival and growth of S. horneri spores and germlings,and this impact changed depending on the different stages of the early of S. horneri.
Citation:Chen Ziqiang, Sun Qinghai, Chen Quanzhen, Sun Jianzhang, Zeng JiangningEffect of Acid Stress on the Early Life Stages of Sargassum horneri[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 864-870
Effects of Elevated Ozone on Carbon, Nitrogen Content and Soil Enzymes Activities in a Winter Wheat Field  PDF download
Huang Yizong, Wang Fei, Zhong Min, Sui Lihua, Wu Wen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120504001
Abstract: Tropospheric O3 as one of the world's most important atmospheric pollutants, the mechanism of O3 stress on crop growth, soil enzyme activities and soil carbon and nitrogen content has become the important issues of concern. An ozone-OTCs(OTCs, open-top chambers)system was setup in a winter wheat field to investigate effects of elevated ozone concentration on soil dehydrogenase, invertase, urease and soil carbon and nitrogen content in different soil depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm) and different growth period (shooting, pustulation period) of winter wheat. The results indicated that soil total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers tended to decrease with the increase of the ozone concentration, and both of which declined significantly in high concentration treatment (120 nL?·L-1) compared to the control treatment. In addition, soil enzyme activities were impacted by elevated ozone. In the pustulation period of winter wheat, the soil dehydrogenase activity reached a maximum when ozone concentration was 120 nL ·L-1, which increased by 59.42% (0-10 cm soil layer), 51.45% (10-20 cm soil layer), 22.16% (20-40 cm layer) compared to control treatment respectively. The soil invertase activity fluctuated in different growing periods of winter wheat and different soil layers. The soil urease activity showed no significant differences in the shooting period under different concentration of ozone; but in pustulation period, the urease activity of 20-40 cm soil layer had a rising trend with elevated ozone concentration, and reached its maximum when the concentration of ozone was 120 nL·L-1, which increased by 24.55% compared to control treatment. The soil invertase activity and soil total carbon content showed significant relationship, while the soil urease activity and soil total nitrogen content were significantly correlated.
Citation:Huang Yizong, Wang Fei, Zhong Min, Sui Lihua, Wu WenEffects of Elevated Ozone on Carbon, Nitrogen Content and Soil Enzymes Activities in a Winter Wheat Field[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 871-878
Effects of Atrazine on Blood Indices and Histopathology of Grass Carp (Ctenopharhyngoden idella)  PDF download
Soorena Abdali, Ayoub Yousefi Jourdehi, Rezvanollah Kazemi, Ali Hallajian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120320008
Abstract: Atrazine is currently the most widely used herbicide in the south of Iran. The chronic toxicity effects of atrazine (herbicide) on blood indices and histopathology of the gill, liver and kidney in grass carp (Ctenopharhyngoden idella ) were studied by exposing them to sublethal concentrations of atrazine to 0, 10, 100, 1 000, 10 000 g atrazine per liter of water for a period of 30 days. Up to 100 g·L-1, atrazine did not show significant toxicity. In contrast, atrazine in the concentration of 1 000 and 10 000 g·L-1significantly increased toxicity effects on studied parameters. The highest mortality rate (100%) was observed at 10 000 g·L-1on the day 10 and at 1 000 g·L-1on the day 20. Cytological analysis showed that haematocrit (Hct) increased significantly with the increase of atrazine concentration and days. White blood cells (WBC), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin (Hb) were changed significantly (p<0.05) in different treatments. Biochemical analysis indicated that plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the increase of atrazine concentrations and exposure days. Histopathological studies showed hyperplasia, hyperemia, necrosis, mucosa secretion, shortness of filaments, lamellar fusion in gills; necrosis, anemia, bile stagnation in liver; and cell atrophy, hyperemia, hemorrhage and necrosis in kidney which were more severed at 1 000 and 10 000 g·L-1. Therefore, mentioned effects on studied histopathological and some blood parameters were both dose - and time -dependent. In sum, the atrazine exposure of grass carp at concentrations 1 000 and 10 000 g·L-1induced significant changes in blood indices and structural disruptions in gill, liver and kidney organs on days 20 and 10, respectively. The obtained results indicated the atrazine is toxic and could damage vital organs and blood of grass carp. Therefore, the use of atrazine should be imperative and carefully monitored.
Citation:Soorena Abdali, Ayoub Yousefi Jourdehi, Rezvanollah Kazemi, Ali Hallajian.Effects of Atrazine on Blood Indices and Histopathology of Grass Carp (Ctenopharhyngoden idella)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 879-885
The Quantative Relationship of Different Ecotoxicity Thresholds for Copper and Nickel in Soils Different Trophic Levels PDF download
Wang Xiaoqing, Li Jumei, Wei Dongpu, Huang Zhanbin, Ma Yibing
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120905001
Abstract: The dose-response relationship is an important part of ecotoxicology. Different effective concentrations causing inhibition for chemicals could be derived based on the dose-response relationship. The effective concentration causing 10% inhibition (EC10) values are the basis for establishing risk-based environmental quality criteria, while most of the thresholds reported in the research about ecotoxicity were the effective concentration causing 50% inhibition (EC50) values. To find out the quantative relationship of different ecotoxicity thresholds is a key issue needed to be addressed for deriving environmental quality criteria. In this paper, the dose-response curves of copper and nickel to barley root elongation, tomato and bok choy growth in 17 Chinese representative soils were fitted with log-logistic functions. The slopes (b) of the curves were obtained and the EC10 and EC50 values for the three plants in different soils were derived based on dose-response curves. The results showed that the soil properties affected the b values significantly. The b values for copper dose-response curves of barley, tomato and bok choy were in the range of 3.9~11.5, 2.7~12.1 and 3.3~13.5, respectively. The b values for nickel dose-response curves of the three plants were in the range of 4.1~10.4、4.0~14.8 and 1.8~14.8, respectively. The b values for copper and nickel of the three plants were generally similar with an average mean value of 6.0 and 7.0 which implied that the variation of b value for a given toxicant in different plant species was not significant. The quantitative equations of EC10 and EC50 for copper and nickel were obtained based on ecotoxicity data from Chinese soils. The predictive models with the determination coefficient (R2x) of 0.704 and 0.799, respectively, could predict EC10 values for copper and nickel based on EC50 values accurately. When taking into account the effect of pH in copper EC10 predictive model and organic carbon (OC) in nickel EC10 predictive model, the determination coefficient of the models increased up to 0.730 and 0.885, respectively. The quantitative equations of EC10 and EC50 for copper and nickel will provide more data basis for the risk assessment and the establishment of related soil standards.
Citation:Wang Xiaoqing, Li Jumei, Wei Dongpu, Huang Zhanbin, Ma YibingThe Quantative Relationship of Different Ecotoxicity Thresholds for Copper and Nickel in Soils[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 886-892
Safety Evaluation of Spinosad SC, Abamectin EC and Beta-cypermethrin EW Pesticides to Environmental Organisms  PDF download
Xu Di, Pan Jinglin, Liu Wanqiang, Jiang Fuping, Dong Junxia, Wang Huili
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120904002
Abstract: There are many kinds of pesticides which are used to treat the same kind of diseases and pests. Under the premise of guaranteeing the effect, choosing pesticides which are safe to other organisms in the applied environment is equally necessary. Risks of 25 g·L-1 spinosad SC, 1.8% abamectin EC and 4.5% beta-cypermethrin EW on environmental organisms as bee, silkworm, trichogramma, Daphnia magna and zebrafish were compared through the toxicity test. The results showed that the toxicity of 25 g·L-1 spinosad SC to bee and trichogramma was high, and to silkworm was very high, while to Daphnia magna and zebrafish was low. The toxicity of 1.8% abamectin EC to bee and trichogramma was high, and to silkworm, Daphnia magna and zebrafish was very high. The toxicity of 4.5% beta-cypermethrin EW to bee and trichogramma was high, and to silkworm, Daphnia magna and zebrafish was very high. To the aquatic organisms, Spinosad was more safe than abamectin and beta-cypermethrin. The risks of 3 pesticides to bee, silkworm and trichogramma were high, while compared with abamectin and beta-cypermethrin, spinosad was safe to the aquatic organisms.
Citation:Xu Di, Pan Jinglin, Liu Wanqiang, Jiang Fuping, Dong Junxia, Wang Huili.Safety Evaluation of Spinosad SC, Abamectin EC and Beta-cypermethrin EW Pesticides to Environmental Organisms[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 893-898
Evaluation on Genetic Toxicity of Dyeing Wastewater during Treatment Process and Effluent on Paramecium caudatum  PDF download
Guo Li, Liu Wei, Jin Yihe
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120910001
Abstract: The effect of toxicity of dyeing effluent was evaluated by Paramecium caudatum . The results of acute toxicity showed that 24h-LC50 of tank and effluent's water samples were 54%, 41%, 98%, respectively. The results of genetic toxicity showed that influent at concentration of 6.25% and effluent at concentration of 12.25% caused Paramecium caudatum s' DNA damage significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). However, compared with influent, the DNA damages of effluent were no significantly different. The results of growth rate showed that effluent at cocnetration of 50% inhibited Paramecium caudatum s' growth. 10 percent of Paramecium caudatum s' swimming behavior changed after exposure to effluent. Although treated dyeing effluent's physico-chemical indicators were in line with national dyeing wastewater discharge standards, the effluent still induced acute toxicity to Paramecium caudatum , and genetic toxicity was not significantly reduced. Biological toxicity test can be an effective complement to evaluate the physico-chemical indicators, and provide the basis for dyeing wastewater industry's comprehensive discharge standards.
Citation:Guo Li, Liu Wei, Jin YiheEvaluation on Genetic Toxicity of Dyeing Wastewater during Treatment Process and Effluent on Paramecium caudatum[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 899-904
Application of Modified SOS/umu Test to Determine Genotoxicity of Genotoxic Chemicals and Effluents from Drinking Water Treatment Process  PDF download
Yan Ye, Li Na, Liu Nannan, Ma Mei, Luo Qian, Wang Zijian
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121017001
Abstract: SOS/umu test is one of the widely used methods to determine genotoxicity of both chemicals and complex mixtures. However, more than 17-hour test cycle of published methods make it inconvenient, the growth curve of Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002 was firstly analyzed to obtain a better method. With the modification of test method, 2 hours pre-culture with 4.5 hour exposure system were used to determine five genotoxins with different mode of action including 4-NQO, MMC, MMS, 2-AA and BaP. The results showed that the detection limits of 4-NQO, MMC, MMS, 2-AA and BaP were 0.013 0.0031、0.031±0.0028、229.18±60.51、2.29±1.22 and 1.28±0.069 μmol·L-1 respectively, better than those reported before. In addition, 6 source waters were detected,no differences were found between the genotoxic potencies using the methods published by Oda and the modified methods in the absence of S9. Additionally, the genotoxicity of six complex mixtures from raw, treated and pipe waters of two waterworks in a northern city of China were analyzed. In the absence of rat liver microsomal enzyme system (S9), positive results were induced by all the complex mixtures, with toxic equivalent quantity of 4-NQO in the concentration range of 0.0012 μg·L-1and 0.0129 μg·L-1. Only one sample from pipe water was tested as weakly positive to S9. Therefore, the above results demonstrated that the improved SOS/umu test would be a faster but reliable way to determine genotoxicity of both compounds and complex environmental samples.
Citation:Yan Ye, Li Na, Liu Nannan, Ma Mei, Luo Qian, Wang ZijianApplication of Modified SOS/umu Test to Determine Genotoxicity of Genotoxic Chemicals and Effluents from Drinking Water Treatment Process[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 905-912
Acute Toxicity of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) and Oil Dispersant on Juvenile Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus), Gastropoda  PDF download
Zhang Jing, Yin Chunshen, Fang Jianmeng, Chen Haoyun
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121019002
Abstract:To investigate the effects of surfactant pollutants on marine echinoderms, the acute toxicity of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and oil dispersant to juvenile sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicas ) was studied. Results showed that 72 h-LC50 and 96 h-LC50 of SDBS to juvenile sea cucumber were 2.50 and 1.71 mg·L-1, respectively and 96 h-LC50 of oil dispersant to juvenile sea cucumber was 7498.94 mg·L-1. Juvenile sea cucumber was found more sensitive to SDBS than to Moina macrocopa and Palaemon carincauda, and lower sensitive to SDBS than to Pseudodiaptomus annandalei . SDBS had higher toxicity than SDS to juvenile sea cucumber. Oil dispersant 96 h-LC50 was far greater than that of SDBS and SDS, indicating that the toxicity was very low to juvenile sea cucumber (Stichopus japonicas ). Most studies neglected oil dispersant impact of the biology, the research of this aspect work is worth to be carried out.
Citation:Zhang Jing, Yin Chunshen, Fang Jianmeng, Chen HaoyunAcute Toxicity of Sodium Dodecyl Benzene Sulfonate (SDBS) and Oil Dispersant on Juvenile Sea Cucumber (Stichopus japonicus)[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 913-918
Genotypic Differences in Iron Plaque Formation on Root Surface and Their Effect on Arsenic Uptake and Translocation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grown in Arsenic Contaminated Soil   PDF download
Hu Ying, Huang Yizong, Liu Yunxia
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121102001
Abstract: The formation of iron plaque on root surface, arsenic uptake and translocation by different genotypic rice (Oryza satival L.) were investigated in pot experiments. The results showed that the formation of iron plaque on root surface between genotypes was significantly different (p<0.001), Fe concentration in iron plaque for 94D-22 was 1.5-1.8 times of that for Gui630. Addition of As had no significant effect on iron plaque formation. At low content of As soil, there was a significant positive correlation between the amount of iron plaque and As concentration in roots (r=0.657, n=24, p<0.01). Significant negative correlation was between the amount of iron plaque and translocation factor (TF) (r=-0.612, n=24, p<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between the amount of iron plaque and As concentration in shoots (r=0.653-0.673, n=24, p<0.01), and no significant correlation between the amount of iron plaque and translocation factor (TF) after As was added into soil. Keyou1360 had lower As concentration in shoots and translocation factor (TF), and 94D-22 showed opposite results among the six genotypes. The results indicated that iron plaque on root surface acted as a barrier to As translocation within rice plants at low As level, while increased As accumulation in shoots and did not significantly affect As translocation from root to shoot at high As level. Hazards of As contaminated soil and health risk could be decreased through cultivars screening.
Citation:Hu Ying, Huang Yizong, Liu YunxiaGenotypic Differences in Iron Plaque Formation on Root Surface and Their Effect on Arsenic Uptake and Translocation in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grown in Arsenic Contaminated Soil[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 919-926
Effects of Bisphenol A on the Transcriptions of Typical Functional Genes in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Liver   PDF download
Duan Zhenghua, Wang Hua, Li Ningtao, Wang Lulu, Zhu Lin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121113001
Abstract: The effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on the transcriptions of typical function genes in adult zebrafish liver were investigated by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The results showed that monotonic dose-response curves were existed in the transcriptions of FGF8A and STAU 2 after 28 days of BPA exposure, however, non-monotonic curves were found for CLDN 1 and CALCA genes. SP 4 was significantly inhibited in the group of 15 g·L-1 BPA but stimulated in the group of 150 and 1 500 g·L-1 BPA. The self regulation and repair function of the abnormal expressed genes were further discussed when the BPA interference was removed. The results showed that the expression of CLDN 1 could be recovered to normal level. While the other four genes couldn't recover, at low dose groups, they maintained the original high toxicity levels and even perform higher toxicities. The research testified that some non monotonic dose-effect existed in BPA and the gene transcriptions in adult zebrafish liver.
Citation:Duan Zhenghua, Wang Hua, Li Ningtao, Wang Lulu, Zhu LinEffects of Bisphenol A on the Transcriptions of Typical Functional Genes in Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Liver [J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 927-932
Ecological Risk Assessment of Five Organophosphorus Pesticides Mixture in Taihu Lake   PDF download
Lei Changwen, Cao Ying, Zhou Tengyao, Zhang Yahui, Zeng Honghu, Liu Zhengtao
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121211001
Abstract: Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are widely distributed in the aquatic environment in China. Even if the levels of single OP pesticides in water are lower than the safety criteria, the ecological risk of pesticide concurrently exposed as the mixture may threaten aquatic ecosystem. In this study, the method of risk quotient (RQ) for mixtures which was based on the concentration addition model and the species sensitivity distribution curve was applied to assess the ecological risk of five OP pesticides mixture including dichlorvos, parathion, methyl parathion, malathion and dimethoate in Taihu Lake. The results indicated that the risk quotients of OP pesticide mixtures (RQm ) were greater than 1 in the three different periods from 2003 to 2004, demonstrating that the OP pesticide mixtures in Taihu Lake had posed a certain ecological risk for the aquatic organisms.
Citation:Lei Changwen, Cao Ying, Zhou Tengyao, Zhang Yahui, Zeng Honghu, Liu ZhengtaoEcological Risk Assessment of Five Organophosphorus Pesticides Mixture in Taihu Lake[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 933-940
Combined Reproductive Toxicity Effects of Omethote and Chlopyrifos on Male Rats   PDF download
Wen Yi, Liu Weijiang, Zhao Kangping, Wang Dong, Pan Jiarong
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121221001
Abstract:To study the the combined reproductive toxicity of omethoate and chlopyfifos on biological reproductive toxicity, the combined reproductive toxicity and mechanism of omethoate and chlopyfifos to Sprague- Dawley rats were investigated using the chronic infected animal experiments and 3×3 factorial experimental design. After 60 days' exposure to the mixture of omethoate and chlopyfifos, the epididymal viscera coefficients increased (p<0.05), while sperm number and rate of sperm mobility (p<0.05) reduced. There was synergism between omethoate and chlopyfifos on the reproductive organs. According to the results of histomorphological examination, the exposure of omethoate and chlorpyrifos mixtures can cause atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, sperm deformation, germ cell necrosis, cytoplasmic dissolution, and mitochondrial vacuolization; the number of sertoli cells was reduced, the percentage of necrosis of sertoli cells was increased, and sperm was shed from the supporting cells, and cause basement membrane loss. All the evidences adequately indicated that the combined omethoate and chlopyfifos showed synergism effects on the reproductive toxicity of SD rats, and there was obvious toxic potentiation. The synergism of the mixture on marker enzyme and sex hormone of testicular was the one of mechanism of synergism reproductive male toxicity. Therefore, the combined effect of these pollutants should be considered in the process of environmental health risk assessmet.
Citation: Wen Yi, Liu Weijiang, Zhao Kangping, Wang Dong, Pan Jiarong Combined Reproductive Toxicity Effects of Omethote and Chlopyrifos on Male Rats[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 941-950

 

Evaluation on the Combined Toxicity of Pyridium-Based Ionic Liquids to Vibrio Qinghaiensis sp.-Q67  PDF download
Zhang Jin, Liu Shushen, Deng Huiping, Zhou Jun, Wang Chenglin
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20121014001
Abstract: The cumulative toxicity and toxicity interaction of mixtures have potential hazards and risks to the environment and human health. Selecting six pyridium-based ionic liquids (ILs), 1-butyl pyridinium bromide, 1-hexyl pyridinium bromide, 1-octyl pyridinium bromide, 1-butyl pyridinium chloride, 1-hexyl pyridinium chloride, and 1-octyl pyridinium chloride as mixture components, we employed the direct equipartition ray design and uniform design ray methods to design four groups of binary mixtures and two groups of ternary ones, respectively. Every group of mixture contains five mixture rays with different concentration ratios. The toxicities of the six single ILs and 30 binary and ternary mixture rays to Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 (Q67) were determined by using the microplate toxicity analysis, and the mixture toxicity interaction was identified by selecting the concentration addition (CA) as an additive reference model. It was shown that concentration -response curves (CRCs) of six ILs as well as 30 binary and ternary mixture rays can be effectively described by the Logit function. Selecting the negative logarithm of median effective concentration (pEC50) as a toxicity index, the toxicity of six ILs to Q67 has a positive relationship with the length of alkyl chain in IL. Every two-carbon augment on the alkyl chain almost makes the toxicity (pEC50) of IL increasing one. The anion, Br- or Cl- does not affect the toxicity of ILs on Q67. Except that the group of binary mixtures between 1-hexyl pyridinium chloride and 1-octyl pyridinium chlorides produced significant antagonism, the other five groups of binary and ternary mixtures display the concentration additive action.
Citation:Zhang Jin, Liu Shushen, Deng Huiping, Zhou Jun, Wang ChenglinEvaluation on the Combined Toxicity of Pyridium-Based Ionic Liquids to Vibrio Qinghaiensis sp.-Q67[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 951-958
The Toxic Effects of Leachate of River Sediment in a Contaminated Site on Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) Embryos   PDF download
Zhou Yan, Xu Jian, Feng Yanhong, Zhang Shengtian, Ding Haoran, Lin Yusuo
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20120909001
Abstract: To evaluate the potential ecological risk and the toxic effect of river sediment from a contaminated site on aquatic animals, zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) was chosen as the model animal and was exposed to the leachate of the sediment in the embryonic toxicity test. The toxic effects of five different leachate (A1、A2、A3、A4、A5) to the zebrafish embryos was studied. The results indicated that all the five leachate exhibited toxic effects on embryos by restraining the development of zebrafish embryos. Exposure to the leachate increased the mortality rate in a concentration-dependent way. A significant increase in mortality rate was observed, under elevated concentration. Furthermore, for all five leachate, a significant reduction in hatching rate was also recorded as the concentration of leachate increased. In addition, different abnormalities and toxic symptoms caused by the leachate were observed, including edema, fish curvature and immaturity. The results indicated potential ecological risk of the river sediment to the surrounding ecological environment, accordingly, the river sediment should be dredged and treated properly.
Citation:Zhou Yan, Xu Jian, Feng Yanhong, Zhang Shengtian, Ding Haoran, Lin YusuoThe Toxic Effects of Leachate of River Sediment in a Contaminated Site on Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio) Embryos[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 959-967
The Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals on the Embryonic Development of Penaeus japonicas  PDF download
Jiang Huichao, Liu Aiying, Song Xiukai, Sun Guohua, Liu Lijuan
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130307001
Abstract: The toxic effects on the development of Penaeus japonicas embryos from the static exposure of Zn, Hg, Cu, Pb, As, Cd and Cr were studied in this paper. Hg and Cu were the most toxic to the development of P. japonicus, followed by Zn, As and Cd, while no significant toxic effects were observed from the exposure of Pb or Cr. The LC50 of Hg, Cu, Cd, As and Zn to P. japonicas embryos were 0.0177 mg?·L-1, 0.1070 mg·L-1, 1.6057 mg·L-1, 3.3682 mg·L-1, 8.2644 mg·L-1, respectively. The LOECs of Hg, Cu, Cd, As and Zn to P. japonicas embryos for mortality were 0.0037 mg·L-1, 0.0166 mg·L-1, 0.1302 mg·L-1, 1.1572 mg·L-1, 2.1522 mg·L-1, respectively; and 0.0062 mg·L-1, 0.0176 mg·L-1, 0.4002 mg·L-1, 1.9497 mg·L-1, 0.0617 mg·L-1 for development inhibition, respectively. The embryos hatching rates decreased and mortality increased with the Hg and Cu concentration increased. The mortality of the embryos was 100% when exposed to 0.0256 mg·L-1 Hg. The results indicated that the development of P. japonicas embryos was inhibited with dose-dependent by the exposure of Hg and Cu. No nauplius was observed when exposed to 0.32 mg·L-1 Cu for 48 hours.
Citation: Jiang Huichao, Liu Aiying, Song Xiukai, Sun Guohua, Liu LijuanThe Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals on the Embryonic Development of Penaeus japonicas[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 968-976
Screening of Priority Contaminants and Health Risk Assessment in Beijing Guanting Reservoir   PDF download
Chen Xichao, Luo Qian, Song Hanwen, Wang Donghong, Wang Zijian, Xu Kewen
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130307002
Abstract: In the risk management, it is quite necessary to screen for a limited number of site-specific priority contaminants of potential health risk. In this paper, water samples were collected from Guanting Reservoir of Beijing, China and organic contaminants were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From quantitative results, it showed that 43 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 8 carbonyl compounds, and 7 taste and odor compounds could be identified from 77 targets. The concentrations of VOCs, carbonyl compounds, and taste and odor compounds were in the range of nd~8.17 μg·L-1, nd~5.04 μg·L-1, and nd~1 421.58 ng·L-1, respectively. Among the 58 detected contaminants, 23 were regulated by the standards for drinking water quality (GB5749-2006) and 22 by the environmental quality standards for surface water (GB3838-2002). None of these regulated contaminants exceeded the standards. In 58 detected contaminants, 5 taste and odor compounds with odor thresholds were evaluated for taste and odor concerns. 17 contaminants with the carcinogenic data were evaluated for carcinogenic risks while 37 with toxicological data were evaluated for non-carcinogenic risks. Results showed that 5 taste and odor compounds all exceeded their odor thresholds. The total carcinogenic risks were at levels of 10-6~10-5, and the total non-carcinogenic risks were at the level of 10-2, both of which were in the acceptable ranges of the US EPA. In qualitative analysis, a total of 80 contaminants were screened from 1 093 compounds as potential health risk contaminants for further verification. In conclusion, the health risk associated with organic micro-contaminants in the water of Guanting reservoir was at a low level if served as the drinking water source of Beijing. Benzene-containing compounds should be the major concern. Hexachlorobutadiene and crotonaldehyde were the risky priority contaminants with relatively higher risks while 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) and 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) were the odor-causing priority contaminants.
Citation:Chen Xichao, Luo Qian, Song Hanwen, Wang Donghong, Wang Zijian, Xu KewenScreening of Priority Contaminants and Health Risk Assessment in Beijing Guanting Reservoir[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 977-988
Acute Toxicity of Emamectin Benzoate to Loach  PDF download
Yan Yating, Wang Hongyuan, Wu Minyao, Yu Yingxiang, Wu Minyao
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20130116001
Abstract: Acute toxicity test of loach exposed toemamectin benzoate (EB) was carried out in this study. Using the probability unit methods, the half lethal concentration and safe concentration were calculated when loach exposed to different time. The results showed that the 48 h-LC50 and 96 h-LC50 of emamectin benzoate to loach was 14.137 mg·L-1 and 6.765 mg·L-1. Obvious dose-effect relationship was showed between salt concentration and loach mortality. With the exposure time increased, both half lethal concentration and safety concentration have decreased. Using histological methods, the histological structure of gill, retinal, skin changes were observed in the loach exposed to different concentrations of EB. The results also showed that 20 mg·L-1 EB treatment group caused lipofuscin deposition, secretory cell reduced and nerve mast cells lost in skin. In addition, retinal cell layer has become thinner and inner segment/outer segment of the photoreceptor cells has lost, which caused visual impairment.
Citation: Yan Yating, Wang Hongyuan, Wu Minyao, Yu Yingxiang, Wu MinyaoAcute Toxicity of Emamectin Benzoate to Loach[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 989-993
ioavailability of Cu to Medakain Xiangjiang with Biotic Ligand Model  PDF download
Wang Chunyan, Chen Hao, Zheng Binghui, An Lihui
DOI:10.7524/AJE.1673-5897. 20110916001
Abstract: To evaluate copper bioavailability in Xiangjiang River, acute toxicity tests of copper to medaka were performed and the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) was obtained. Then, the lethal accumulation 50 (LA50) of copper to medaka was calculated by Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). The predicted values by BLM showed that LA50 of copper to medaka was 12.43 nmol·gw-1. The ratio of LC50 obtained from the predicted value and actual test value was no more than 2, indicating that the LC50 evaluated by BLM was reasonable. Thus, LC50 of medaka to copper predicted by BLM ranged from 344.70 to 761.96 μg·L-1. In addition, final acute value (FAV) of samples from Xiangjiang River ranged from 11.04 to 14.25 μg·L-1, while the contents of dissolved Cu ranged from 0.29 to 10.48 μg·L-1. Moreover, the ratios of actual concentrations and criterion maximum concentration ranged from 0.06 to 1.48 μg·L-1 and only the ratio in Zhuzhou site was more than 1 (1.48), implying that the contents of dissolved Cu was 1.48-fold of the water quality criteria predicted by BLM.
Citation:Wang Chunyan, Chen Hao, Zheng Binghui, An LihuiBioavailability of Cu to Medakain Xiangjiang with Biotic Ligand Model[J]. Asian Journal of Ecotoxicology, 2013, 8(6): 994-1000
 
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